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Haas M.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Adawi N.,BlackGold Biofuels | Berry W.W.,Process Technology Associates | Feldman E.,BlackGold Biofuels | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/ transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B 100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chainlength fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Ngo H.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Xie Z.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Kasprzyk S.,BlackGold Biofuels | Haas M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lin W.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2011

Biodiesel (BD) is a renewable fuel for compression ignition engines that is composed of the simple alkyl esters, usually methyl-, of fatty acids (FAME). It is typically produced via base-catalyzed transesterification between refined vegetable oil or animal fat (e.g., soybean oil, tallow) and an alcohol (e.g., methanol). This process can, however, be marginally cost-effective due to the high feedstock and processing costs. It is thus desirable to develop new catalytic routes that can efficiently convert less expensive feedstocks to BD. We report here on the application of a series of diarylammonium based homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for converting a particularly low value, low quality lipid, trap grease, to FAME. In the course of a 1-h reaction at 125 °C these catalysts simultaneously esterified the free fatty acids (>90 wt% of the substrate) and transesterified the acylglycerols (<10 wt%) of the feedstock to FAME with greater than 95% overall conversion. © 2011 AOCS (outside the USA).


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BlackGold Biofuels | Entity website

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BlackGold Biofuels | Entity website

gadgets When spring cleaning, it is common to find an out-dated gadget around the home. If you find yourself throwing the gadget into the bin, then you are not alone ...


BlackGold Biofuels | Entity website

gadgets When spring cleaning, it is common to find an out-dated gadget around the home. If you find yourself throwing the gadget into the bin, then you are not alone ...


BlackGold Biofuels | Entity website

One of the major factors that cause authoritative bodies to fight the sales of some products is the hazardous effect to the environment. There are some products that can generally cause harm to the environment ...

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