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Aydin N.,Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University | Mut Z.,Bozok University | Ozcan H.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

Twenty-five wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown at three locations (Samsun, Amasya and Tokat) in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey in order to estimate the broad-sense heritability for grain yield and some agronomic and quality traits. Estimation of the heritability will help to identify selection parameters in our breeding programs for target environments. The heritability for grain yield, test weight, 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, protein content and plant height were 46.05%, 86.88%, 81.82%, 89.13%, 87.45% and 43.69%, respectively. It was found that Zeleny sedimentation was the least affected trait over environments and followed protein content, test weight and 1000-kernel weight. On the other hand, grain yield and plant height were the most affected traits across environmental conditions.

Madakbas S.Y.,Ahi Evran University | Ergin M.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

In this study, seeds from 51 bean genotypes obtained from the Izmir Aegean Agricultural Research Institute were multiplied under ecological conditions of the Samsun province in 2006. Similarities and differences in terms of morphological variation were identified for 16 genotypes carrying the phenological, morphological and pod characteristics of fresh bean in 2007. It was determined that the length of time between sowing to sprouting had an important relationship and a positive correlation with the date of initial flowering, 50% flowering and pod width in the correlation matrix. In the principle component analysis (PCA), the two initial PC axis explained the 53.9% of the total variation. The cluster analysis was based on 19 parameters. Five groups were obtained and shown in a dendrogram. High levels of variation between bean genotypes were detected. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Mennan H.,Ondokuz Mayis University | Ngouajio M.,Michigan State University | Sahin M.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Isik D.,Erciyes University | Altop E.K.,Ondokuz Mayis University
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Developing more competitive rice cultivars could help improve weed management and reduce dependency on herbicides. To achieve this goal, an understanding of key traits related to competitiveness is critical. Experiments were conducted at Gelemen and Bafra districts of Samsun province in Turkey between 2008 and 2009 to measure the competitiveness of rice cultivars against Echinochloa crus-galli, a problematic weed in rice fields. Five rice cultivars (.Osmancik, Kizilirmak, Karadeniz, Koral and Neĝiş) and five E. crus-galli densities (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 plants m -2) were used. Koral produced significantly more tillers than the other cultivars irrespective of E. crus-galli densities and reduced E. crus-galli tiller production by about 29.5% at Gelemen and 15.8% at Bafra at the highest weed density. E. crus-galli interference reduced rice height and there was a density dependent relationship. Koral was the most competitive cultivar; it maintained high biomass accumulation in early growth stages and suffered smaller reductions in plant height in the presence of E. crus-galli, compared to the other cultivars. In the absence of weed competition, Koral and Neĝiş produced the highest yields at both locations. Stepwise regression analyses of the combined data from both years showed tillering capacity, early growth crop biomass, and plant height were critical traits related to competitiveness. These traits should be considered by plant breeders in their efforts to develop rice cultivars with enhanced competitiveness against weeds. Development of such cultivars could substantially reduce herbicide and labor inputs for rice production. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Karaagac O.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Balkaya A.,Ondokuz Mayis University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The use of grafted seedlings in Cucurbits has increased in recent years as interspecific hybrids between Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita moschata Duch. have become the preferred rootstock for watermelon, melon and cucumber. The interspecific hybrid seed production of C. maxima×C. moschata mainly depends on genotype compatibility. In this study, different interspecific hybridization combinations were evaluated in order to obtain C. maxima×C. moschata rootstocks. The field experiment of this study was carried out in the çarşamba district of Samsun Province in 2009. The initial genetic materials were inbred and purified up to the S5 generation. These genotypes were selected based on plant vigor, hypocotyls characteristics and seed yields. A total of 234 pollinations of different combinations between twelve C. maxima lines and eleven C. moschata lines were performed. 79 interspecific hybrid fruits were obtained from these hybridizations. Crossing incompatibility was found to be highest in the MO8 lines (C. moschata) in all combinations. The MA4, MA9 and MA12 winter squash (C. maxima) lines were determined to be promising ones for obtaining hybrid seed yield. In conclusion, the MA9×MO8, MA12×MO2 and MA4×MO8 hybrid combinations were the most promising candidates for rootstock breeding. As a result of this study, these selected combinations will be used in the development of promising new rootstock cultivars. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Arslan H.,Ondokuz Mayis University | Tasan M.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Yildirim D.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Koksal E.S.,Ondokuz Mayis University | Cemek B.,Ondokuz Mayis University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

In this study, we examined the ability of reflectance spectroscopy to predict some of the most important soil parameters for irrigation such as field capacity (FC), wilting point (WP), clay, sand, and silt content. FC and WP were determined for 305 soil samples. In addition to these soil analyses, clay, silt, and sand contents of 145 soil samples were detected. Raw spectral reflectance (raw) of these soil samples, between 350 and 2,500-nm wavelengths, was measured. In addition, first order derivatives of the reflectance (first) were calculated. Two different statistical approaches were used in detecting soil properties from hyperspectral data. Models were evaluated using the correlation of coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (R 2), root mean square error (RMSE), and residual prediction deviation (RPD). In the first method, two appropriate wavelengths were selected for raw reflectance and first derivative separately for each soil property. Selection of wavelengths was carried out based on the highest positive and negative correlations between soil property and raw reflectance or first order derivatives. By means of detected wavelengths, new combinations for each soil property were calculated using rationing, differencing, normalized differencing, and multiple regression techniques. Of these techniques, multiple regression provided the best correlation (P < 0.01) for selected wavelengths and all soil properties. To estimate FC, WP, clay, sand, and silt, multiple regression equations based on first(2,310)-first(2,360), first(2,310)-first(2,360), first(2,240)-first(1,320), first(2,240)-first(1,330), and raw(2,260)-raw(360) were used. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was performed as the second method. Raw reflectance was a better predictor of WP and FC, whereas first order derivative was a better predictor of clay, sand, and silt content. According to RPD values, statistically excellent predictions were obtained for FC (2.18), and estimations for WP (2.0), clay (1.8), and silt (1.63) were acceptable. However, sand values were poorly predicted (RDP = 0.63). In conclusion, both of the methods examined here offer quick and inexpensive means of predicting soil properties using spectral reflectance data. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

Arli-Sokmen M.,Ondokuz Mayis University | Deligoz I.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Kutluk-Yilmaz N.D.,Ondokuz Mayis University
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are well-known legume-infecting potyviruses. The incidences of BCMV and BCMNV infections were determined by ELISA in 367 seed and leaf samples which were collected in 15 common bean-growing provinces of Turkey. Of the samples tested, 67 (18.2 %) occurred to be infected with BCMV, however only 5 (1.4 %) were infected with BCMNV. A total of 45 ELISA-positive samples were selected from single-virus infected ones to determine BCMV and BCMNV pathogenicity groups (PGs) by using a set of bean cultivars that contain different combinations of resistance genes. Some BCMV populations exhibiting unusual pathogenicity were identified. One of them, named TR-180, was found to overcome resistance conferred by bc-1, bc-12, bc-2 and bc-22 recessive alleles in common bean and assigned to PG VII. This isolate shared high (99 %) sequence identity with previously identified BCMV RU-1 and RU-1-related strains (RU1-OR-B and RU1-OR-C) according to a BLAST analysis of the nucleotide sequences of RT-PCR amplified products comprising the complete coat protein and 3′ partial NIb regions. The isolates TR-203 and TR-256 produced a distinctive reaction pattern in the dominant I gene-bearing bean cultivars Amanda and Isabella at lower (<30 °C) temperatures and were classified into PG IVb. These isolates were found to be 99 % identical to US-1 strain based on 3′ terminal nucleotide sequences of the BCMV genome. A fourth isolate, TR-243, involved mixed BCMV populations, as confirmed by partial nucleotide sequence analysis; one was classified as belonging to PG VII being similar to TR-180, and another was assigned to PG IVb. In conclusion, on the basis of both the reactions of differential bean cultivars and ELISA results, most of BCMV isolates were assigned to pathogroup PG VII and BCMNV isolates to PG VIb. This study is the first to show that four recessive resistance alleles of common bean can be overcome by a single field isolate of BCMV, and that a wide range of BCMV pathogroups are present in Turkey. © 2016 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging

In this study, a canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was used to estimate relationships between plant characters [X set-fruit length (FL), fruit width (FW), fruit wall thickness (FWT), placenta length, stem thickness, plant height (PH), leaf length, leaf width, flowering time (50%), and time to maturity], and yield components [Y set-total fruit weight per plant (FW/P), average fruit weight and number of fruits per plant (FN/P)] of 56 red peppers [Capsicum annuum L. var. conoides (Mill.) Irish] in populations collected from the Samsun province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. All canonical correlation coefficients (0.708, 0.635, 0.413) between the pairs of canonical variables were found to be significant (P < 0.01). The findings obtained from the CCA indicate that FN/P had the largest contribution for the explanatory capacity of canonical variables estimated from yield components of 56 red pepper populations when compared with other yield components. FL and PH had largest contribution for the explanatory capacity of canonical variables estimated from plant characters when compared with other characters. The results of this study show that PH, FWT and FW should be used with the aim of increasing yield per plant in red pepper genotypes.

Yavuz T.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Surmen M.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Cankaya N.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2011

Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 in the Black Sea coastal area in the north of Turkey, to study the effect on yield responses of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) of the following: Row spacing (17.5 and 35 cm) and seeding rates (60, 80, 100 and 120 kg ha -1). The row spacing and seeding rate had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and the yield components. In general, for high forage yield 17.5 cm row spacing and 100 kg ha -1 seeding rate, for high seed yield 35 cm row spacing and 100 kg ha -1 seeding rate can be recommended similar ecological conditions.

Surmen M.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Yavuz T.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Cankaya N.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2011

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phosphorus rate (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha -1) and harvesting stage (beginning of flowering, full flowering, and seed filling) on forage yield and quality of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.). Dry matter (DM) yield, N, P, K, ADF, NDF, TDN and RFV were determined. Phosphorus rates and harvesting stages significantly affected most of the quality components determined in common vetch. Phosphorus applications increased DM yield and N and P contents with TDN and RFV but decreased K, ADF and NDF. Harvesting at the late stages caused reduction in forage quality. N, P, K contents with TDN and RFV decreased with advancing stages while DM yield, ADF and NDF contents increased.

Mut Z.,Bozok University | Aydin N.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Orhan Bayramoglu H.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute | Ozean H.,Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2010

This study was carried out in order to determine some quality traits such as thousand grain weight (TGW), hectoliter weight (HW), grain protein content (GPC), Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV) and stability of quality traits of 25 bread wheat genotypes. The experiment was conducted at seven environmental conditions during 2 growing periods (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) using randomized complete block design with four replicates. The ANOVA showed that out of the total sum of squares, 48.4, 28.0 and 23.6% for TGW, 71.4, 14.9and 13.7% for HW, 54.4, 23.0 and 22.6% for GPC, 44.7, 41.7 and 13.6% forZSVwas attributable to E, G and G × Ei nteraction effects, respectively. Thousand grain weight, hectoliter weight, grain protein content and Zeleny sedlmentasyon volume of genotypes changed from 34.5to 41.4 g, from 76.5 to 80.4Kg, from 11.49 to 13.37% and from 22.1 to 46.0 ml, respectively. Seven stability parameters, covering a wide range of statistical approaches, were used so as to predict the genotypes. The study of genotypic stability showed that Bezostaya and advancedlines numbered 11 and 24 hadhigh stabilityforquality traits andprovedto be the best within the pool of the studied genotypes. Also, 8 and 17 numbered genotypes demonstrated high stability for TGW, HW, GPC and HW, GPC and ZSV, respectively. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).

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