Black Family Stem Cell Institute

New York City, NY, United States

Black Family Stem Cell Institute

New York City, NY, United States
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Klein S.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Dvornik J.L.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Schaniel C.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Schaniel C.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Stem Cell Research | Year: 2017

Fibroblasts of a 28-year-old female with Marfan syndrome (MFS) due to a heterozygous FBN1 c.4082G > A mutation were reprogrammed using the Sendai virus delivery method. The established human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line named ISMMSi002-B expresses pluripotency markers, has a normal karyotype, carries the specific FBN1 mutation and is able to differentiate into three germ layers in vitro. ISMMSi002-B has utility in studying MFS pathogenesis, including skeletal abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction associated with aortic aneurysm. Furthermore, it can serve as a platform for drug discovery. © 2017 The Authors


Daniel M.G.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Lemischka I.R.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Moore K.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2016

Even though all paradigms of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine emerged from the study of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the inability to generate these cells de novo or expand them in vitro persists. Initial efforts to obtain these cells began with the use of embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies, but these strategies have yet to yield fully functional cells. Subsequently, more recent approaches involve transcription factor (TF) overexpression to reprogram PSCs and various somatic cells. The induction of pluripotency with just four TFs by Yamanaka informs our ability to convert cell fates and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing terminally differentiated cells to generate cells with multilineage potential. In this review, we discuss the recent efforts undertaken using TF-based reprogramming strategies to convert several cell types into HSCs. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.


Seifert B.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Dejosez M.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Zwaka T.P.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute
Stem Cell Research | Year: 2017

Early mammalian embryonic cells must maintain a particularly robust DNA repair system, as mutations at this developmental point have detrimental consequences for the organism. How the repair system can be tuned to fulfill such elevated requirements is largely unknown, but it may involve transcriptional regulation. Ronin (Thap11) is a transcriptional regulator responsible for vital programs in pluripotent cells. Here, we report that this protein also modulates the DNA damage response of such cells. We show that conditional Ronin knockout sensitizes embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to UV-C-induced DNA damage in association with Atr pathway activation and G2/M arrest. Ronin binds to and regulates the genes encoding several DNA repair factors, including Gtf2h4 and Rad18, providing a potential mechanism for this phenotype. Our results suggest that the unique DNA repair requirements of the early embryo are not met by a static system, but rather via highly regulated processes. © 2017


Josowitz R.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Carvajal-Vergara X.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Lemischka I.R.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Gelb B.D.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Current Opinion in Cardiology | Year: 2011

Purpose of review: The development of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has led to many advances in the areas of directed cell differentiation and characterization. New methods for generating iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes provide an invaluable resource for the study of certain cardiovascular disorders. This review highlights the current technology in this field, its application thus far to the study of genetic disorders of the RAS/MAPK pathway and long-QT syndrome (LQTS), and future directions for the field. Recent findings: Enhanced methods increase the efficiency of generating and stringently purifying iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. The use of cardiomyocytes derived from patients with LEOPARD syndrome and LQTS has shed light on the molecular mechanisms of disease and validated their use as reliable human disease models. Summary: The use of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes to study genetic cardiovascular disorders will enable a deeper and more applicable understanding of the molecular mechanisms of human disease, as well as improving our ability to achieve successful cell-based therapies. Methods to efficiently generate these cells are improving and provide promise for future applications of this technology. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Yalcin S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Marinkovic D.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Mungamuri S.K.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Zhang X.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 4 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2010

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in normal intracellular signalling and in many diseases including cancer and aging, although the associated mechanisms are not fully understood. Forkhead Box O (FoxO) 3 transcription factor regulates levels of ROS concentrations, and is essential for maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we show that loss of Foxo3 causes a myeloproliferative syndrome with splenomegaly and increased hematopoietic progenitors (HPs) that are hypersensitive to cytokines. These mutant HPs contain increased ROS, overactive intracellular signalling through the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway and relative deficiency of Lnk, a negative regulator of cytokine receptor signalling. In vivo treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine corrects these biochemical abnormalities and relieves the myeloproliferation. Moreover, enforced expression of Lnk by retroviral transfer corrects the abnormal expansion of Foxo3 -/- HPs in vivo. Our combined results show that loss of Foxo3 causes increased ROS accumulation in HPs. In turn, this inhibits Lnk expression that contributes to exaggerated cytokine responses that lead to myeloproliferation. Our findings could explain the mechanisms by which mutations that alter Foxo3 function induce malignancy. More generally, the work illustrates how deregulated ROS may contribute to malignant progression. © 2010 European Molecular Biology Organization | All Rights Reserved.


Saunders A.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Saunders A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Faiola F.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Wang J.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Wang J.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Stem Cells | Year: 2013

Pluripotent embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for future use in tissue replacement therapies due to their ability to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into all adult cell types. Harnessing this therapeutic potential efficiently requires a much deeper understanding of the molecular processes at work within the pluripotency network. The transcription factors Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 reside at the core of this network, where they interact and regulate their own expression as well as that of numerous other pluripotency factors. Of these core factors, Nanog is critical for blocking the differentiation of pluripotent cells, and more importantly, for establishing the pluripotent ground state during somatic cell reprogramming. Both mouse and human Nanog are able to form dimers in vivo, allowing them to preferentially interact with certain factors and perform unique functions. Recent studies have identified an evolutionary functional conservation among vertebrate Nanog orthologs from chick, zebrafish, and the axolotl salamander, adding an additional layer of complexity to Nanog function. Here, we present a detailed overview of published work focusing on Nanog structure, function, dimerization, and regulation at the genetic and posttranslational levels with regard to the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency. The full spectrum of Nanog function in pluripotent stem cells and in cancer is only beginning to be revealed. We therefore use this evidence to advocate for more comprehensive analysis of Nanog in the context of disease, development, and regeneration. © AlphaMed Press.


PubMed | Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Black Family Stem Cell Institute and University of Coimbra
Type: | Journal: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2017

This protocol details the induction of a hemogenic program in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) via overexpression of transcription factors (TFs). We first designed a reporter screen using MEFs from human CD34-tTA/TetO-H2BGFP (34/H2BGFP) double transgenic mice. CD34


PubMed | Stem Cell Therapeutics, University of Coimbra and Black Family Stem Cell Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Trends in cell biology | Year: 2016

Previous attempts to either generate or expand hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vitro have involved either ex vivo expansion of pre-existing patient or donor HSCs or de novo generation from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), comprising both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs alleviated ESC ethical issues but attempts to generate functional mature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have been largely unsuccessful. New efforts focus on directly reprogramming somatic cells into definitive HSCs and HSPCs. To meet clinical needs and to advance drug discovery and stem cell therapy, alternative approaches are necessary. In this review, we synthesize the strategies used and the key findings made in recent years by those trying to make an HSC.


Takikawa S.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Wang X.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Ray C.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | Vakulenko M.,Black Family Stem Cell Institute | And 2 more authors.
Epigenetics | Year: 2013

Genomic imprinting is a common epigenetic phenomenon in mammals. Dysregulation of genomic imprinting has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. ZFP57 is a master regulator in genomic imprinting. Loss of ZFP57 causes loss of DNA methylation imprint at multiple imprinted regions in mouse embryos, as well as in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Similarly, mutations in human ZFP57 result in hypomethylation at many imprinted regions and are associated with transient neonatal diabetes and other human diseases. Mouse and human Zfp57 genes are located in the same syntenic block. However, mouse and human ZFP57 proteins only display about 50% sequence identity with different number of zinc fingers. It is not clear if they share similar mechanisms in maintaining genomic imprinting. Here we report that mouse and human ZFP57 proteins are functionally interchangeable. Expression of exogenous wild-type human ZFP57 could maintain DNA methylation imprint at three imprinted regions in mouse ES cells in the absence of endogenous mouse ZFP57. However, mutant human ZFP57 proteins containing the mutations found in human patients could not substitute for endogenous mouse ZFP57 in maintaining genomic imprinting in ES cells. Like mouse ZFP57, human ZFP57 and its mutant proteins could bind to mouse KAP1, the universal cofactor for KRAB zinc finger proteins, in mouse ES cells. Thus, we conclude that mouse and human ZFP57 are orthologs despite relatively low sequence identity and mouse ES cell system that we had established before is a valuable system for functional analyses of wild-type and mutant human ZFP57 proteins. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.


PubMed | Black Family Stem Cell Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Epigenetics | Year: 2014

Genomic imprinting is a common epigenetic phenomenon in mammals. Dysregulation of genomic imprinting has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. ZFP57 is a master regulator in genomic imprinting. Loss of ZFP57 causes loss of DNA methylation imprint at multiple imprinted regions in mouse embryos, as well as in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Similarly, mutations in human ZFP57 result in hypomethylation at many imprinted regions and are associated with transient neonatal diabetes and other human diseases. Mouse and human Zfp57 genes are located in the same syntenic block. However, mouse and human ZFP57 proteins only display about 50% sequence identity with different number of zinc fingers. It is not clear if they share similar mechanisms in maintaining genomic imprinting. Here we report that mouse and human ZFP57 proteins are functionally interchangeable. Expression of exogenous wild-type human ZFP57 could maintain DNA methylation imprint at three imprinted regions in mouse ES cells in the absence of endogenous mouse ZFP57. However, mutant human ZFP57 proteins containing the mutations found in human patients could not substitute for endogenous mouse ZFP57 in maintaining genomic imprinting in ES cells. Like mouse ZFP57, human ZFP57 and its mutant proteins could bind to mouse KAP1, the universal cofactor for KRAB zinc finger proteins, in mouse ES cells. Thus, we conclude that mouse and human ZFP57 are orthologs despite relatively low sequence identity and mouse ES cell system that we had established before is a valuable system for functional analyses of wild-type and mutant human ZFP57 proteins.

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