St. Louis, MO, United States
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Ko C.Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Hall B.L.,Washington University in St. Louis | Hall B.L.,John Cochran Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Hall B.L.,BJC Healthcare
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: To assess statistical reliability of hospital profiling models in ACS NSQIP (American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program) Background: The ACS NSQIP January 2013 Semiannual Report provided risk-adjusted hospital quality assessments for 137 models. Methods: Median reliability and percentage of hospitals achieving acceptable reliability were computed for each model. Average median reliability was computed across models with common outcomes. Results: Median reliability varied across the 137 models, from a high of 0.91 for "All Cases Morbidity" to a low of 0.005 for "Procedure-Targeted Total Hip Arthroplasty Surgical Site Infection." Generally, reliability was greatest for models with larger sample sizes and higher outcome event rates. Among "Essentials" models, 72% attained a median reliability of 0.40 or more, and 24% of 0.70 or more. Among "Procedure-Targeted" models, 29% attained a median reliability of 0.40 or more, and 3% of 0.70 or more. Percentage of hospitals achieving an acceptable reliability of 0.40 ranged from 98% for "All Cases Morbidity" to 0% for "Procedure-Targeted Pancreatectomy Mortality." For Essentials models, average median reliability for each outcome, except mortality, was more than 0.40. However, for Procedure-Targeted models the average median was less than 0.40. Conclusions: For a large proportion of ACS NSQIP Essentials models, statistical reliability is adequate for assessing surgical quality and differentiating hospital performance. The Procedure-Targeted program is evolving in terms of statistical reliability, with promising results to date. These results also argue for broader discussions of statistical reliability in performance assessments for the profession. Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Merkow R.P.,Northwestern University | Merkow R.P.,University of Chicago | Ju M.H.,Northwestern University | Chung J.W.,Northwestern University | And 9 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE: Financial penalties for readmission have been expanded beyond medical conditions to include surgical procedures. Hospitals are working to reduce readmissions; however, little is known about the reasons for surgical readmission. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the reasons, timing, and factors associated with unplanned postoperative readmissions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing surgery at one of 346 continuously enrolled US hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, had clinically abstracted information examined. Readmission rates and reasons (ascertained by clinical data abstractors at each hospital) were assessed for all surgical procedures and for 6 representative operations: bariatric procedures, colectomy or proctectomy, hysterectomy, total hip or knee arthroplasty, ventral hernia repair, and lower extremity vascular bypass. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Unplanned 30-day readmission and reason for readmission. RESULTS: The unplanned readmission rate for the 498 875 operations was 5.7%. For the individual procedures, the readmission rate ranged from 3.8% for hysterectomy to 14.9% for lower extremity vascular bypass. The most common reason for unplanned readmission was surgical site infection (SSI) overall (19.5%) and also after colectomy or proctectomy (25.8%), ventral hernia repair (26.5%), hysterectomy (28.8%), arthroplasty (18.8%), and lower extremity vascular bypass (36.4%). Obstruction or ileus was the most common reason for readmission after bariatric surgery (24.5%) and the second most common reason overall (10.3%), after colectomy or proctectomy (18.1%), ventral hernia repair (16.7%), and hysterectomy (13.4%). Only 2.3%of patients were readmitted for the same complication they had experienced during their index hospitalization. Only 3.3%of patients readmitted for SSIs had experienced an SSI during their index hospitalization. There was no time pattern for readmission, and early (≤7 days postdischarge) and late (>7 days postdischarge) readmissions were associated with the same 3 most common reasons: SSI, ileus or obstruction, and bleeding. Patient comorbidities, index surgical admission complications, non-home discharge (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95%CI, 1.35-1.46]), teaching hospital status (HR, 1.14 [95%CI 1.07-1.21]), and higher surgical volume (HR, 1.15 [95%CI, 1.07-1.25]) were associated with a higher risk of hospital readmission. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Readmissions after surgery were associated with new postdischarge complications related to the procedure and not exacerbation of prior index hospitalization complications, suggesting that readmissions after surgery are a measure of postdischarge complications. These data should be considered when developing quality indicators and any policies penalizing hospitals for surgical readmission. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Neuner E.A.,Cleveland Clinic | Casabar E.,Barnes Jewish Hospital | Reichley R.,BJC Healthcare | McKinnon P.S.,Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2010

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) often persists despite full susceptibility to vancomycin; therefore, associated factors were assessed. A retrospective cohort analysis of 222 patients with MRSAB treated with vancomycin was conducted; patients with persistent MRSAB (pMRSAB) were compared to those with nonpersistent bacteremia (NPB). Incidence of pMRSAB was 9%. More patients with vancomycin MIC = 2 mg/L had pMRSAB (16%) compared to patients with vancomycin MIC <2 mg/L (5%), P = 0.012. SCC. mec type and Panton-Valentine leukocidin production were similar between patients with pMRSAB and NPB. There was no difference in vancomycin troughs, time to first dose, or area under the concentration-time curve/MIC between groups. More metastatic complications were observed in pMRSAB 63% versus NPB 32% (P = 0.005). Multivariate analysis found endocarditis (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; P = 0.021), complicated MRSAB (OR, 2.6; P = 0.009), vancomycin MIC = 2 (OR, 2.6; P = 0.009), and septic shock (OR 2.2 P = 0.031), which were independent predictors of pMRSAB. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Otani K.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne | Waterman B.,Thomson Reuters | Claiborne Dunagan W.,BJC Healthcare
Journal of Healthcare Management | Year: 2012

With increasing emphasis in healthcare on patient satisfaction, many patient satisfaction studies have been administered. Most assume that all patients combine their healthcare experiences (such as nursing care, physician care, etc.) in the same way to arrive at their satisfaction; however, no research has been conducted prior to the present study to investigate how patients' health conditions influence the way they combine their healthcare experiences. This study aims to determine how seriously ill patients differ from less seriously ill patients during their combining process. Data were collected from five large hospitals in the St. Louis area by administering a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses with a scatter term, a severity measure, and interaction effects of the severity measure were conducted while controlling for age, gender, and race. Two models (overall quality of care and willingness to recommend to others) were analyzed, and the severity of illness variable revealed interaction effects with physician care, staff care, food, and scatter term variables in the willingness to recommend model (six attributes were analyzed: admission process, nursing care, physician care, staff care, food, and room). With more seriously ill patients, physician care becomes more important and staff care becomes less important, and seriously ill patients are proportionately more likely to combine their attribute reactions only in the willingness to recommend model. All six attributes are not equally influential. Nursing care and staff care show consistent influence in both models. These findings show that if healthcare managers want to increase their patient satisfaction, they should enhance nursing care and staff care first to experience the most improvement.


Pitt S.C.,University of Washington | Jin L.X.,University of Washington | Hall B.L.,University of Washington | Hall B.L.,St Louis Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND:: Preoperative predictors of incidental gallbladder cancer (iGBC) have been poorly defined despite the frequency with which cholecystectomy is performed. The objective of this study was to define the incidence of and consider risk factors for iGBC at cholecystectomy. METHODS:: The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database (2005-2009) was used to identify all patients who underwent cholecystectomy (N = 91,260). Patients with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis of gallbladder malignancy who underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC; n = 80,924) or open cholecystectomy (OC; n = 10,336) alone were included. RESULTS:: The incidence of iGBC was 0.19% (n = 170) for all cholecystectomy cases, but 0.05% at LC, 0.60% at LC converted to OC (P < 0.001 vs LC), and 1.13% at OC (P < 0.001 vs others). Patients undergoing OC were 17.3 times more likely to have iGBC than LC patients. Age 65 years or older, Asian or African American race, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) class 3 or more, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, weight loss more than 10%, alkaline phosphatase levels 120 units/L or more, and albumin levels 3.6 g/dL or less were associated with iGBC. Multiple logistic regression identified having an OC, age 65 years or older, Asian or African American race, an elevated alkaline phosphatase level, and female sex as independent risk factors. Patients with 1, 2, 3, and 4 of these factors had a 6.3-, 16.7-, 30.0-, and 47.4-fold risk of iGBC, respectively, from a zero-risk factor baseline of 0.03%. CONCLUSIONS:: Surgeons' suspicion for GBC should be heightened when they are performing or converting from LC to OC and when patients are older, Asian or African American, female, and have an elevated alkaline phosphatase level.Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Lin M.Y.,Rush University Medical Center | Hota B.,Rush University Medical Center | Hota B.,Hospital of Cook County | Khan Y.M.,Ohio State University | And 8 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2010

Context: Central line-associated bloodstream infection (BSI) rates, determined by infection preventionists using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) surveillance definitions, are increasingly published to compare the quality of patient care delivered by hospitals. However, such comparisons are valid only if surveillance is performed consistently across institutions. Objective: To assess institutional variation in performance of traditional centralline-associated BSI surveillance. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 20 intensive care units among 4 medical centers (2004-2007). Unit-specific central line-associated BSI rates were calculated for 12-month periods. Infection preventionists, blinded to study participation, performed routine prospective surveillance using CDC definitions. A computer algorithm reference standard was applied retrospectively using criteria that adapted the same CDC surveillance definitions. Main Outcome Measures: Correlation of central line-associated BSI rates as determined by infection preventionist vs the computer algorithm reference standard. Variation in performance was assessed by testing for institution-dependent heterogeneity in a linear regression model. Results: Forty-one unit-periods among 20 intensive care units were analyzed, representing 241 518 patient-days and 165 963 central line-days. The median infection preventionist and computer algorithm central line-associated BSI rates were 3.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.0-4.5) and 9.0 (IQR, 6.3-11.3) infections per 1000 central line-days, respectively. Overall correlation between computer algorithm and infection preventionist rates was weak (ρ=0.34), and when stratified by medical center, point estimates for institution-specific correlations ranged widely: medical center A: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.05 to 0.98; P=.04; medical center B: 0.76; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.93; P=.003; medical center C: 0.50, 95% CI, -0.11 to 0.83; P=.10; and medical center D: 0.10; 95% CI -0.53 to 0.66; P=.77. Regression modeling demonstrated significant heterogeneity among medical centers in the relationship between computer algorithm and expected infection preventionist rates (P<.001). The medical center that had the lowest rate by traditional surveillance (2.4 infections per 1000 central line-days) had the highest rate by computer algorithm (12.6 infections per 1000 central line-days). Conclusions: Institutional variability of infection preventionist rates relative to a computer algorithm reference standard suggests that there is significant variation in the application of standard central line-associated BSI surveillance definitions across medical centers. Variation in central line-associated BSI surveillance practice may complicate interinstitutional comparisons of publicly reported central line-associated BSI rates. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Gase K.A.,BJC HealthCare | Babcock H.M.,University of Washington
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2015

There is still little known about how infection prevention (IP) staffing affects patient outcomes across the country. Current evaluations mainly focus on the ratio of IP resources to acute care beds (ACBs) and have not strongly correlated with patient outcomes. The scope of IP and the role of the infection preventionist in health care have expanded and changed dramatically since the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC Project) recommended a 1 IP resource to 250 ACB ration in the 1980s. Without a universally accepted model for accounting for additional IP responsibilities, it is difficult to truly assess IP staffing needs. A previously suggested alternative staffing model was applied to acute care hospitals in our organization to determine its utility. © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc.


Sarikonda K.V.,University of Washington | Micek S.T.,Barnes Jewish Hospital | Doherty J.A.,BJC Healthcare | Reichley R.M.,BJC Healthcare | And 2 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: To test whether intensive care unit (ICU) nasal screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) predicts the presence or absence of MRSA infections requiring antimicrobial treatment. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Medical ICU at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, a 1252-bed urban teaching hospital. Patients: Seven hundred forty-nine consecutive patients admitted to the medical ICU over a 7-mo period (November 2007 through June 2008). Interventions: Nasal swabs were obtained at ICU admission and weekly thereafter for MRSA detection by using polymerase chain reaction. All subjects were followed for the development of MRSA infection during their ICU stay. Measurements and main results: One hundred sixty-four (21.9%) patients had positive nasal colonization with MRSA at the time of ICU admission. The predictive accuracy of MRSA nasal colonization for ICU-acquired MRSA infections, either lower respiratory tract infection or bloodstream infection, was poor (lower respiratory tract infection: sensitivity, 24.2%; specificity, 78.5%; positive predictive value, 17.7%; and negative predictive value, 84.4%; and bloodstream infection: sensitivity, 23.1%; specificity, 78.2%; positive predictive value, 11.0%; and negative predictive value, 89.7%). Addition of nasal-colonization results obtained during the ICU stay did not appreciably change the predictive accuracy of this test for identification of subsequent lower respiratory tract infections and bloodstream infections attributed to MRSA requiring antimicrobial treatment. Conclusions: In this analysis, nasal colonization with MRSA was found to be a poor predictor for the subsequent occurrence of MRSA lower respiratory tract infections and MRSA bloodstream infections requiring antimicrobial treatment. Clinicians should be cautious in using the results of nasal-colonization testing to determine the need for MRSA treatment among patients with ICU-acquired infections. © 2010 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Allen M.J.,University of Washington | Powers M.L.E.,University of Washington | Gronowski K.S.,BJC HealthCare | Gronowski A.M.,University of Washington
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The use of human blood and tissue is critical to biomedical research. A number of treaties, laws, and regulations help to guide the ethical collection of these specimens. However, there are no clearly defined regulations regarding the ownership of human tissue specimens and who can control their fate. CONTENT: This review discusses the existing regulations governing human studies and the necessary components of patient consent. Legal cases that have addressed the issue of ownership of human tissue are reviewed, including recent settlements that have led to the destruction of millions of specimens of patient tissue. The unique regulations that guide the use of tissues collected postmortem are also examined. Potential changes in the future of biomedical research that uses human tissue, including genetic material, are also discussed. SUMMARY: The use of human tissue is directed by numerous laws and regulations. Awareness of these rules and of how and when to obtain meaningful informed consent from patients is essential for laboratorians and researchers, who should also be familiar with situations that have led to lawsuits and in some cases the destruction of valuable human tissue specimens. © 2010 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.


Babcock H.M.,University of Washington | Gemeinhart N.,BJC HealthCare | Jones M.,BJC HealthCare | Claiborne Dunagan W.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. Influenza vaccination of health care workers has been recommended since 1984. Multiple strategies to enhance vaccination rates have been suggested, but national rates have remained low. Methods. BJC HealthCare is a large Midwestern health care organization with ̃26,000 employees. Because organizational vaccination rates remained below target levels, influenza vaccination was made a condition of employment for all employees in 2008. Medical or religious exemptions could be requested. Predetermined medical contraindications include hypersensitivity to eggs, prior hypersensitivity reaction to influenza vaccine, and history of Guillan-Barré syndrome. Medical exemption requests were reviewed by occupational health nurses and their medical directors. Employees who were neither vaccinated nor exempted by 15 December 2008 were not scheduled for work. Employees still not vaccinated or exempt by 15 January 2009 were terminated. Results. Overall, 25,561 (98.4%) of 25,980 active employees were vaccinated. Ninety employees (0.3%) received religious exemptions, and 321 (1.2%) received medical exemptions. Eight employees (0.03%) were not vaccinated or exempted. Reasons for medical exemption included allergy to eggs (107 [33%] ), prior allergic reaction or allergy to other vaccine component (83 [26%]), history of Guillan-Barré syndrome (15 [5%]), and other (116 [36%]), including 14 because of pregnancy. Many requests reflected misinformation about the vaccine. Conclusions. A mandatory influenza vaccination campaign successfully increased vaccination rates. Fewer employees sought medical or religious exemptions than had signed declination statements during the previous year. A standardized medical exemption request form would simplify the request and review process for employees, their physicians, and occupational health and will be used next year. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

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