Nahak G.,KIIT University |
Sahu R.K.,BJB Autonomous College
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2014
Objective: Recently, there has been increased interest in the immune stimulating function of some herbs in aquaculture. The phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents without causing toxicity. Many studies have proved that herbal additives enhanced the growth of fishes and protected them from various diseases. The herbs are not only safe for consumers but also widely available throughout the world and they also have a significant role in aquaculture. Certain medicinal plants are believed to promote positive health and maintain organic resistance against infection by re-establishing body equilibrium and conditioning the body tissues. Methods: The aerial parts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. were extracted with double distilled water and then extracts were screened for their immunomodulatory effects on Clarias batrachus. Haematological and biochemical studies were done on specific and nonspecific levels after administering the extracts for 15 and 30 days. Result: Our results showed that there is no significant decrease in the amount of glucose and cholesterol at concentration 2.5% but there is a significant reduction in glucose amount at 5% in comparison to control. But a significant increase was seen; the RBC, WBC, serum protein and globulin at 2.5% and 5% concentrations of crude extracts in both the 15 and 30 days of treatments in the blood of the fish. It may be due to the presence of phenolic compounds like tannins, saponin, flavonoids, steroid, terpenoids, eugenol, caryophylline, cardiac glycerides etc. Conclusion: Based on the results it is appropriate to conclude that the plant extract of Ocimum sanctum may act as a potent Immunostimulant in Clarias batrachus Linn.
Sahu M.C.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University |
Dubey D.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University |
Rath S.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University |
Debata N.K.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University |
Padhy R.N.,BJB Autonomous College
Journal of Public Health (Germany) | Year: 2012
Aim: The aim of the present study was to record nosocomial and community-acquired accounts of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, isolated from clinical samples of a hospital by surveillance, over a period of 18 months (November 2009-April 2011). Subject and Methods: Clinical samples from nosocomial sources, i.e. wards and cabins and intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) sources, and community (outpatient department, OPD) sources of a hospital were used for isolating strains of P. aeruginosa. Results Of 368 isolated strains of P. aeruginosa, a total of 201 (54.62%) strains were from nosocomial and 167 (45.38%) strains were from community samples. There were 42 (25.14%) extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL) strains among the 167 isolates from the community samples. And from wards and cabins, there were 29 (23%) ESβL strains among the 126 isolates. Of the 75 isolates from ICU and NICU, there were 25 (33.33%) ESβL strains; the total of nosocomial ESβL strains was 54 (26.86%) in this study from the total of 201 P. aeruginosa isolates. In a computation of the χ 2test of independence for assessing incidences of ESβL strains among all multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, it was inferred that ESβL strains were equally distributed in wards and cabins, ICU and NICU or community, similar to the rest of the other MDR P. aeruginosa strains. Fifteen antibiotics were used for assessing antibiotic sensitivity of all isolated P. aeruginosa strains and a progressive increase of percent values of drug resistance was recorded. Conclusion: This study on surveillance of a hospital revealed the daunting state of occurrence of MDR P. aeruginosa. A progressive increase of percent values of drug resistance to 15 antibiotics used for antibiotic sensitivity of P. aeruginosa strains was recorded. © Springer-Verlag 2012.
Mansouri-Najand L.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University |
Mansouri-Najand L.,BJB Autonomous College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012
Objective: Background and aim: The most common and the best way of preventing microbial decay of marine foods is using freezing technology and the cycles and methods of defrosting have considerable effect on microbial changes of frozen shrimp. Shrimp is one of the marine foods that due to high active water (aw) and neutral PH and autolytic enzymes have high decay. Thus, in this study the effect of various methods of defrosts on microbial contamination of shrimp was investigated. Methods: This study was an empirical design on Penaeus merguiensis. The shrimps were divided into three groups including 1- peeled and headless (PUD), 2- Complete, 3- Headless (with skin) being frosted and defrosted in three cycles. Each group of shrimp was classified in terms of the type of defrosting method in three groups as 1- Microwave, 2- Refrigerator, 3- Water and were investigated in 3 cycles with the interval of 4 days. In this investigation, the total bacteria, Psychrophil bacteria, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were counted in private culture mediums. For data analysis, repeated measure Anova was used. Results: All the bacteria including Psychrophil bacteria, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus during the cycles had significant reduction process and this reduction showed significant reduction in complete shrimp and defrosting with refrigerator compared to other groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: According to the results, complete shrimp was the best kind of shrimp in terms of microbial load. Thus, avoiding temperature changes during transportation and avoiding unduly defrosts in maintaining the quality of the frozen shrimp is proposed. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.
Padhy R.N.,BJB Autonomous College |
Nayak N.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University |
Rath S.,BJB Autonomous College
Interdisciplinary Toxicology | Year: 2014
Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash) on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations) of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm) along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm) reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp. © 2014 Interdisciplinary Toxicology.
Nahak G.,BJB Autonomous College |
Sahu R.K.,BJB Autonomous College
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2011
Indian spices that provide flavor, color, and aroma to food also possess many therapeutic properties. Ancient Indian texts of Ayurveda, an Indian system of medicine, detailed the medicinal properties of these plants and their therapeutic usage. Recent scientific research has established the presence of many active compounds in these spices that are known to possess specific pharmacological properties. The therapeutic efficacy of these individual spices for specific pharmacological actions has also been established by experimental and clinical studies. The medicinal effects traditionally ascribed to Indian spices are validated by modern pharmacological and experimental techniques, thus providing a scientific rationale to their traditional therapeutic usage. Many plant-derived molecules have shown a promising effect in therapeutics. Among the plants investigated to date, one showing enormous potential is the Piperaceae. Piperine is an alkaloid found naturally in plants belonging to the pyridine group of Piperaceae family, such as Piper nigrum and Piper cubeba. It is widely used in various herbal cough syrups and it is also used in anti inflammatory, anti malarial, anti leukemia treatment. So the present study was aimed to extract the phytochemical compounds in different solvent system in Piper nigrum and Piper cubeba. In preliminary screening and confirmatory test it was identified as alkaloid. High antioxidant activity was found in Piper cubeba ethanol extract i.e. 77.61±0.02% in comparison to Piper nigrum extracts with 74.61±0.02% with IC50 values10.54±0.12μg/mg and 14.15±0.02 μg/mg respectively.