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Goyang, South Korea

Choi E.-S.,Chonbuk National University | Chung T.,Joongbu University | Kim J.-S.,Biterials Co | Lee H.,Seoul National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Mithramycin A (Mith) is an aureolic acid-type polyketide produced by various soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Mith inhibits myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Md-1) to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer, but the molecular mechanism underlying this process has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the detailed molecular mechanism related to Mith-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Mith decreased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in both cell lines overexpressing phospho-mTOR compared to RWPE-1 human normal prostate epithelial cells. Mith significantly induced truncated Bid (tBid) and siRNA-mediated knock-down of Md-1 increased tBid protein levels. Moreover, Mith also inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR on serine 2448 and Md-1, and increased tBid protein in prostate tumors in athymic nude mice bearing DU145 cells as xenografts. Thus, Mith acts as an effective tumor growth inhibitor in prostate cancer cells through the mTOR/Md-1/ tBid signaling pathway. © 2013 JCBN. Source

Kwon J.-T.,Seoul National University | Kwon J.-T.,National Institute of Environmental Research | Minai-Tehrani A.,Seoul National University | Hwang S.-K.,Seoul National University | And 14 more authors.
Toxicological Research | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to determine the acute pulmonary toxicity of metallic silver nanoparticles (MSNPs, 20.30 nm in diameter). Acute pulmonary toxicity and body distribution of inhaled MSNPs in mice were evaluated using a nose-only exposure chamber (NOEC) system. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, Western blotting, histopathological changes, and silver burdens in various organs were determined in mice. Mice were exposed to MSNPs for 6 hrs. The mean concentration, total surface area, volume and mass concentrations in the NOEC were maintained at 1.93 × 107 particles/cm3, 1.09 × 1010 nm2/cm3, 2.72 × 1011 nm3/cm3, and 2854.62 μg/m3, respectively. Inhalation of MSPNs caused mild pulmonary toxicity with distribution of silver in various organs but the silver burdens decreased rapidly at 24-hrs post-exposure in the lung. Furthermore, inhaled MSNPs induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the lung. In summary, single inhaled MSNPs caused mild pulmonary toxicity, which was associated with activated MAPK signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhalation toxicity of MSNPs should be carefully considered at the molecular level. Source

Shin J.-A.,Chonbuk National University | Kim J.-S.,Biterials Co | Kwon K.-H.,Gwangju University | Nam J.-S.,Gachon University | And 3 more authors.
Oncology Letters | Year: 2012

Sanguisorba officinalis L. has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat diseases including diarrhea, chronic intestinal infections, duodenal ulcers and bleeding. This study examined the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic activity of hot water extract of S. officinalis L. (HESO) on HSC4 and HN22 human oral cancer cells. The effects of HESO were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-20yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and western blot analysis. HESO was found to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HSC4 and HN22 oral cancer cells. HESO downregulated myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in HSC4 cells and was associated with the activation of Bak, resulting in Bak oligomerization on the mitochondrial outer membrane. HESO did not alter Mcl-1 expression in HN22 cells, but it decreased Sp1 expression. The downregulation of Sp1 by HESO in HN22 cells resulted in a decrease in survivin, a downstream target protein of Sp1. These results suggested that HESO inhibited the growth of oral cancer through either Mcl-1 or Sp1, indicating that HESO may serve as a potential drug candidate against oral cancer. © 2012 Spandidos Publications Ltd. Source

Choi E.-S.,Chonbuk National University | Kim J.-S.,Biterials Co | Kwon K.-H.,Gwangju University | Kim H.-S.,Chonbuk National University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2012

Sanguisorba officinalis is a natural plant that has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Several studies have reported that its extracts exhibit anticancer, antioxidative and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. However, the effects of this plant on human prostate cancer cells have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and underlying mechanisms of a methanol extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (MESO) in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. MESO significantly decreased cell growth and induced apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. MESO decreased the expression levels of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), a Bcl-2-like anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in various cancer cell lines. Expression levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax were increased by MESO whereas those of Bak and Bcl-xL were unchanged. In addition, MESO induced the oligomerization of Bax in the mitochondrial outer membrane. These results suggest that MESO inhibits the growth of prostate cancer cells and induces apoptotic cell death by the downregulation of Mcl-1 protein expression and the oligomerization of Bax. Therefore, MESO has potential as a drug candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer. Source

Jeong H.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology | Jeong H.,Chonbuk National University | Kim Y.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | Seo T.H.,Chonbuk National University | And 4 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2012

We report on the efficiency enhancement in GaN-based lightemitting diodes (LEDs) using ZnO micro-walls grown by a hydrothermal method. The formation of ZnO micro-walls at the indium tin oxide (ITO) border on the LED structure is explained by the heterogeneous nucleation effect. The light output power of LEDs with ZnO micro-walls operated at 20 mA was found to increase by approximately 30% compared to conventional LEDs. Moreover, the finding of nearly the same current-voltage characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with and without a ZnO microwall shows that the ZnO micro-wall does not influence the electrical properties of the device but only leads to an increase in the light extraction efficiency. From the confocal scanning electroluminescence results, we confirm that ZnO micro-walls enhance the light output power via the photon wave-guiding effect. © 2012 Optical Society of America. Source

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