Christensen M.,Bispebjerg Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013
Pharmacotherapy in the elderly population is complicated by several factors that increase the risk of drug related harms and poorer adherence. The concept of medication review is a key element in improving the quality of prescribing and the prevention of adverse drug events. While no generally accepted definition of medication review exists, it can be defined as a systematic assessment of the pharmacotherapy of an individual patient that aims to evaluate and optimise patient medication by a change (or not) in prescription, either by a recommendation or by a direct change. Medication review performed in adult hospitalised patients may lead to better patient outcomes. We examined whether the delivery of a medication review by a physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional improves the health outcomes of hospitalised adult patients compared to standard care. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group's Specialised Register (August 2011); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8; MEDLINE (1946 to August 2011); EMBASE (1980 to August 2011); CINAHL (1980 to August 2011); International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to August 2011); and Web of Science (August 2011). In addition we searched reference lists of included trials and relevant reviews. We searched trials registries and contacted experts to identify additional published and unpublished trials. We did not apply any language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of medication review in hospitalised adult patients. We excluded trials of outclinic and paediatric patients. Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes included hospital readmission, emergency department contacts and adverse drug events. Two review authors independently included trials, extracted data and assessed trials for risk of bias. We contacted trial authors for clarification of data and additional unpublished data. We calculated relative risks for dichotomous data and mean differences for continuous data (with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)). We identified 4647 references and included five trials (1186 participants). Follow-up ranged from 30 days to one year. We found no evidence of effect on all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.98; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.23) and hospital readmissions (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.16), but a 36% relative reduction in emergency department contacts (RR 0.64; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.89). It is uncertain whether medication review reduces mortality or hospital readmissions, but medication review seems to reduce emergency department contacts. However, the cost-effectiveness of this intervention is not known and due to the uncertainty of the estimates of mortality and readmissions and the short follow-up, important treatment effects may have been overlooked. Therefore, medication review should preferably be undertaken in the context of clinical trials. High quality trials with long follow-up are needed before medication review should be implemented.
Shabanzadeh D.M.,Bispebjerg Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012
Diverticulitis is an inflammatory complication to the very common condition diverticulosis. Uncomplicated diverticulitis has traditionally been treated with antibiotics with reference to the microbiology, extrapolation from trials on complicated intra-abdominal infections and clinical experience. To assess the effects of antibiotic interventions for uncomplicated diverticulitis on relevant outcome. Studies were identified by computerised searches of the The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Ongoing trials were identified and reference lists of identified trials and relevant review articles were screened for additional studies. RCTs including all types of patients with a radiological confirmed diagnosis of left-sided uncomplicated diverticulitis. Interventions of antibiotics compared to any other antibiotic treatment (different regime, route of administration, dosage or duration of treatment), placebo or no antibiotics. Outcome measures were complications, emergency surgery, recurrence, late complications and duration of hospital stay and recovery of signs of infection. Two authors performed the searches, identification of RCTs, trial assessment and data extraction. Disagreements were resolved by discussion or involvement of a third part. Authors of trials were contacted to obtain additional data if needed or were contacted for preliminary results of ongoing trials. Effect estimates were extracted as relative risks (RR). Three RCTs were identified. A qualitative approach with no meta analysis was performed because of variety in interventions between included studies. Interventions compared were antibiotics to no antibiotics, single to double compound antibiotic therapy and short to long IV administration. None of the studies found significant difference between the tested interventions. Risk of bias varied from low to high. The newest RCT overall had the best quality and statistical power. The newest evidence from one RCT says there is no significant difference between antibiotics versus no antibiotics in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis. Previous RCTs have only suggested a non-inferiority between different antibiotic regimes and treatment lengths. This new evidence needs confirmation from more RCTs before it can be implicated safely in clinical guidelines. Ongoing RCTs will be published in the years to come and more are needed. The role of antibiotics in the treatment of complicated diverticulitis has not been investigated yet.
Norring-Agerskov D.,Bispebjerg Hospital
Danish medical journal | Year: 2013
The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the association of three different clinical score systems with the mortality in hip fracture patients. A literature search was conducted on November 13, 2011 using PubMed and Embase. The search yielded 315 publications which were reviewed on the basis of the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies were included for further processing. The following clinical score systems were found to be of prognostic value for mortality in hip fracture patients: a high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score of three or above (odds ratio (OR): 3.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-3.38; p < 0.00001, 15,625 study participants included), a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score of one or more (OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.79-2.34; p < 0.00001, 13,570 study participants included) and dementia (assessed with Mini Mental State Examination or obtained from journal extraction) (OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.64-4.57; p = 0.0001; 1,782 study participants included). The present meta-analysis showed that the ASA score, the CCI score and assessment of preexisting dementia are useful in predicting the mortality of hip fracture patients.
Thomsen S.F.,Bispebjerg Hospital
Skin therapy letter | Year: 2010
Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms.
Mynster T.,Bispebjerg Hospital
Danish medical journal | Year: 2012
Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) may be even less invasive to patients than conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS). The present study investigates the applicability of the procedure and we report the first year of experiences and operative quality. Patients were selected clinically and after computed tomography. Easy resections (or stoma creations) with small tumours, a body mass index < 30 kg/square meter and American Society of Anesthesiologists group I-II were included. The data were prospectively registered until 1 January 2012. In the standard accelerated "fast track" programme, the use of additional opioids was registered. SILS was performed in 24 patients including 15 patients with cancer resections. In eight stoma creations, no scars were left other than the stoma hole. The overall conversion rate was 17% and the complication rate was 13% with no wound infections. In the 15 SILS colon resections, median operation time (171 min.), blood loss (0 ml), lymph node harvest (median n = 14), dissection quality (73% mesocolic), specimen length (23 cm), height of vascular pedicle (8 cm) and hospital stay (three days) were comparable to international reports. One serious complication of small bowel injury was seen, but this was the only complication (7%) in this group. With the proviso that our study population was limited in size, SILS seems equal to CLS in colorectal cancer surgery - although with a high conversion rate in the learning period, and it is a suitable procedure for minimal invasion in creation of a stoma.