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Forsyth R.G.,New Brunswick Museum | Oldham M.J.,Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources | Snyder E.,Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources | Schueler F.W.,Bishops Mills Natural History Center | Layberry R.,6124 Carp Road
Check List | Year: 2015

Xerolenta obvia is a Central European land snail that has been introduced to Ontario, Canada, where it was first recorded in the literature in 1975 from a single population at Bethany (City of Kawartha Lakes). Over the four decades since that publication, additional records have been found clustered near Bethany, within the City of Kawartha Lakes, neighbouring Peterborough and Northumberland counties, as well as the Regional Municipality of Durham. Two distant sites are also now known, one in rural Ottawa (southeastern Ontario), and one at Windsor, Essex County (southwestern Ontario). © 2015 Check List and Authors.

Trudeau V.L.,University of Ottawa | Somoza G.M.,CONICET | Natale G.S.,University of Buenos Aires | Pauli B.,Environment Canada | And 5 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Background: It is well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity. Some methods are based on administration of mammalian hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, which are not effective in many frogs. There is a need for simple, cost-effective alternative techniques to induce spawning.Methods: Our new method is based on the injection of a combination of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. We have named this formulation AMPHIPLEX, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. This name refers to the specific reproductive behavior of frogs when the male mounts and clasps the female to induce ovulation and to fertilize the eggs as they are laid.Results: We describe the use of the method and demonstrate its applicability for captive breeding in 3 different anuran families. We tested several combinations of GnRH agonists with dopamine antagonists using Lithobates pipiens. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-LHRH (0.4 microrams/g body weight) and metoclopramide (10 micrograms/g BWt. MET) was most effective. It was used in-season, after short-term captivity and in frogs artificially hibernated under laboratory conditions. The AMPHIPLEX method was also effective in 3 Argentinian frogs, Ceratophrys ornata, Ceratophrys cranwelli and Odontophrynus americanus.Conclusion: Our approach offers some advantages over other hormonally-based techniques. Both sexes are injected only once and at the same time, reducing handling stress. AMPHIPLEX is a new reproductive management tool for captive breeding in Anura. © 2010 Trudeau et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Peters J.A.,University of Notre Dame | Cooper M.J.,University of Notre Dame | Creque S.M.,Illinois Natural History Survey | Kornis M.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Great Lakes Research | Year: 2014

Despite increasing recognition of the importance of invertebrates, and specifically crayfish, to nearshore food webs in the Laurentian Great Lakes, past and present ecological studies in the Great Lakes have predominantly focused on fishes. Using data from many sources, we provide a summary of crayfish diversity and distribution throughout the Great Lakes from 1882 to 2008 for 1456 locations where crayfish have been surveyed. Sampling effort was greatest in Lake Michigan, followed by lakes Huron, Erie, Superior, and Ontario. A total of 13 crayfish species occur in the lakes, with Lake Erie having the greatest diversity (n. = 11) and Lake Superior having the least (n. = 5). Five crayfish species are non-native to one or more lakes. Because Orconectes rusticus was the most widely distributed non-native species and is associated with known negative impacts, we assessed its spread throughout the Great Lakes. Although O. rusticus has been found for over 100. years in Lake Erie, its spread there has been relatively slow compared to that in lakes Michigan and Huron, where it has spread most rapidly since the 1990s and 2000, respectively. O. rusticus has been found in both lakes Superior and Ontario for 22 and 37. years, respectively, and has expanded little in either lake. Our broad spatial and temporal assessment of crayfish diversity and distribution provides a baseline for future nearshore ecological studies, and for future management efforts to restore native crayfish and limit non-native introductions and their impact on food web interactions. © 2014 International Association for Great Lakes Research.

Trudeau V.L.,University of Ottawa | Schueler F.W.,Bishops Mills Natural History Center | Navarro-Martin L.,University of Ottawa | Hamilton C.K.,University of Ottawa | And 4 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Background: Amphibian declines are now recognized globally. It is also well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity, especially when held over long periods, or if they require hibernation before breeding. A simple method to induce spawning and subsequent development of large numbers of healthy tadpoles is therefore required to meet research and conservation goals.Methods: The method is based on simultaneous injection of both female and male leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens (formerly called Rana pipiens) with a cocktail of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) and a dopamine antagonist. We call this the AMPHIPLEX method, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. Following injection, the animals are thereby induced, and perform amplexus and natural fertilization under captive conditions.Results: We tested combinations of a GnRH agonist with 2 different dopamine antagonists in L. pipiens in the breeding season. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-NHEt9-GnRH (0.4 micrograms/g body weight; GnRH-A) with metoclopramide hydrochloride (10 micrograms/g body weight; MET) or domperidone (DOM) were equally effective, producing 89% and 88% successful spawning, respectively. This yielded more than 44,000 eggs for the 16/18 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+MET group, and more than 39,000 eggs for the 15/17 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+DOM group. We further tested the GnRH-A+MET in frogs collected in the wild in late autumn and hibernated for a short period under laboratory conditions, and report a low spawning success (43%). However, GnRH-A priming 24 hours prior to injections of the GnRH-A+MET cocktail in animals hibernated for 5-6 weeks produced out-of-season spawning (89%) and fertilization (85%) comparable to those we observed for in-season spawning. Assessment of age and weight at metamorphosis indicated that L. pipiens tadpoles resulting from out-of-season spawning grew normally and metamorphosed successfully.Conclusion: We provide evidence for successful captive breeding of the leopard frog, L. pipiens. This simple protocol can be used to obtain large numbers of eggs in a predictable, timed manner. © 2013 Trudeau et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Desroches J.-F.,Cegep de Sherbrooke | Schueler F.W.,Bishops Mills Natural History Center
Canadian Field-Naturalist | Year: 2010

In May-June 2002, as part of a survey of a variety of taxa in the James Bay region of Ontario and Québec, we surveyed the poorly documented herpetofauna of this region. In Ontario we visited sites near Moosonee that FWS had previously surveyed in 1971-1972, and continued ongoing herpetological monitoring around Cochrane. In Québec we surveyed the inland James Bay Road, and roads to four settlements along the coast. American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus), Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer), and Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) were widespread and abundant throughout. Blue-spotted Salamander (Ambystoma laterale) and Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) were widespread and common in Québec and at the study site near Cochrane. We obtained the first taped calls and voucher specimen of the Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) from Québec, and failed to find it at the settlement and airport of Moosonee where it had been present in 1972. A significant range extension was for the Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata), which we found 200 km north of its previously known range in northwestern Québec. Despite extensive searches, the species was not found north of 52°05'N. The Mink Frog (Lithobates septentrionalis) was widespread and relatively common in Québec, but was sought but not found in Ontario. The Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) was only found at two Québec sites, including one where it was reported in 1974, but it has not been found at any of the Ontario sites where it was found in the 1970's. We present some suggestions for the further study of the herpetofauna of the area, and review evidence for contacts between eastern and western lineages of widespread species.

Seburn D.C.,Seburn Ecological Services | Gunson K.,ECO International | Schueler F.W.,Bishops Mills Natural History Center
Canadian Field-Naturalist | Year: 2014

The Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) was once common in the eastern Ottawa area. To assess its current status, we conducted auditory surveys at 184 wetlands in 2011 and 2012. Boreal Chorus Frogs were heard at only five (2.7%) of the surveyed sites. These five sites were spatially aggregated, with only 0.5-7.5 km between any two sites. Sites occupied by Boreal Chorus Frogs in eastern Ottawa were surrounded by significantly greater agricultural cover (at 1.0-, 1.5-, and 2.0-km radii), less forest cover (1.0- and 2.0-km radii), and less wetland cover (1.5- and 2.0-km radii) than occupied sites in western Ottawa. Sites in eastern Ottawa that were apparently unoccupied were surrounded by significantly greater agricultural cover (only at the 2.0-km radius), similar forest cover (all radii), and less wetland cover (all radii) compared with occupied sites in western Ottawa. Boreal Chorus Frog populations are commonly subject to extirpation resulting from stochastic events. The reduced wetland cover in eastern Ottawa may be accompanied by reduced wetland connectivity, making recolonization of wetlands difficult or impossible. Our data do not show whether wetland connectivity has been reduced, but future research should address this important topic.

Gunson K.E.,ECO International | Schueler F.W.,Bishops Mills Natural History Center
Ecological Restoration | Year: 2012

In landscapes inundated with roads, wildlife is likely to negatively interact with vehicles during its lifetime. Wildlife crossing signs are easily deployed, cost-effective, and meant to encourage wildlife-friendly driving practices in hopes of reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVCs) along roads. Here we use the placement of turtle crossing signs as a case study to provide recommendations for informed placement of mitigation structures across regional landscapes in Ontario and elsewhere. We collected relevant information (design, theft, and location) from 369 turtle crossing signs placed along roads. We then compiled turtle-vehicle collision data from various sources to statistically analyze where they occur in relation to habitat and road type. We also compared the locations of turtle crossing signs to validated hotspots, which was equivalent to 19,000 km of road in Southern Ontario. We found that at least 27% of signs were stolen and at least 10 different design types exist for crossing signs in Ontario. Thirteen percent of signs were not located at validated hotspots, and turtle-vehicle collisions occurred most often on paved highways and county roads. We conclude that a road mitigation strategy should accurately inventory where structures are located and monitor their effectiveness. Structures should be selectively placed using the best available information, such as metapopulation science and WVC data, especially in regions heavily fragmented by roads. In multi-jurisdictional regions, an effective strategy should also consider regional coordination that focuses on standardized sign design and information sharing in an adaptive approach. © 2012 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

Forsyth R.G.,New Brunswick Museum | Oldham M.J.,Natural Resources Canada | Schueler F.W.,Bishops Mills Natural History Center
Check List | Year: 2015

The geographic distribution and habitat of Patera appressa (Say, 1821) in Canada are described. This is a North American land snail native to the southern Appalachians but it has been known, since 1994, from a cluster of sites in Trenton, City of Quinte West, Ontario, where it is presumably introduced. It may no longer be extant at any of the known Ontario sites. © 2015 Check List and Authors.

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