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Honolulu, HI, United States

Thirty-two new species in the plant bug genus Orthotylus are described from the Hawaiian IsIands. The new species and their host plant associations are as follows: O. metrosideropsis n. sp., from Oahu, on Metrosideros polymorpha; O. ohia n. sp., from Oahu, on Metrosideros polymorpha; O. olapa n. sp., from Oahu, on Cheirodendron trigynum; O. perrotteticola n. sp., from Molokai, on Perrottetia sandwicensis; O. perrottetiopsis n. sp., from Oahu, on Perrottetia sandwicensis; O. dubautiae n. sp., from Kauai, on Dubautia raillardiodes; O. dubauticola n. sp., from Kauai, on Dubautia microcephala; O. pisoniacola n. sp., from Kauai, on Pisonia sandwicensis; O. elaeocarpi n. sp., from Kauai, on Eleocarpus bifidus; O. clermontiopsis n. sp., from Kauai, on Clermontia fauriei; O. pipturicola n. sp., from Kauai, on Pipturus albidus; O. pipturiphila n. sp., from Molokai, on Pipturus albidus; O. antidesmoides n. sp., from Molokai, on Antidesma platyphyllum; O. diospyrivorus n. sp., from Lanai, on Diospyros sandwicensis; O. coprosmaphagus n. sp., from Kauai, on Coprosma waimeae and Coprosma kauaiensis; O. coprosmivorus n. sp., from Lanai, on Coprosma ochracea; O. manonophila n. sp., from Kauai, on Hedyotis terminalis; O. manonovorus n. sp., from Lanai, on Hedyotis terminalis; O. manono n. sp., from Molokai, on Hedyotis terminalis; O. manonocola n. sp., from Molokai, on Hedyotis terminalis; O. manonophagus n. sp., from Molokai, on Hedyotis acuminata; O. manonoides n. sp., from Oahu, on Hedyotis terminalis; O. manoniella n. sp., from Oahu, on Hedyotis centranthoides; O. neopsychotriopsis n. sp., from Lanai, on Psychotria mariniana; O. neopsychotricus n. sp., from Maui, on Psychotria mariniana; O. kopikocola n. sp., from Kauai, on Psychotria hexandra; O. kopikovorus n. sp., from Kauai, on Psychotria mauiensis; O. kopikopsis n. sp., from Lanai, on Psychotria mariniana; O. kopikoides n. sp., from Molokai, on Psychotria mariniana; O. kopikophila n. sp., from Maui, on Psychotria mariniana; O. kiko n. sp., from Maui, on Psychotria mariniana; O. melicopoides n. sp., from Oahu, on Melicope oahuensis. Dorsal habitus photographs, figures of the male genitalic structures, and distribution maps are provided for all the above species. New distribution records are also provided for O. metrosideri Polhemus; O. pipturoides Polhemus; O. pisoniopsis Polhemus; O. clermontioides Polhemus; O. kanakanus (Kirkaldy); O. kassandra Kirkaldy; O. kassandropsis Polhemus; O. coprosmicola Polhemus; O. kopiko Polhemus; and O. neopsychotrioides Polhemus. The name Orthotylus sophoricola D. Polhemus is proposed as a replacement for Orthotylus sophorae Polhemus 2003, which due to a lapsus has proven to be a primary homonym of Orthotylus sophorae Josifov 1976. A revised checklist of Hawaiian Orthotylus species, with their host plants and island distributions, is also provided. © New York Entomological Society. Source

Cophixalus represents the most diverse genus of microhylid frogs. Within this group I show that two recently described species are in fact synonyms of species described in the 19th Century. Proper recognition of one of these has been hindered by the poor state of the syntypes and confused information presented in earlier literature. The second species was simply not diagnosed against other members of the genus. I also describe five new species: one of these is known only from a single specimen from far western New Guinea, two occupy the Papuan Peninsula in the east of that island, and two are restricted to Woodlark Island off the southeastern tip of New Guinea. One of these new species had earlier been mis-identified as C. pipilans, requiring me to herein provide a corrected comparison of features that distinguishes C. desticans from C. pipilans. These taxonomic changes bring the number of Cophixalus species to 61, of which 42 inhabit New Guinea and immediately adjacent islands. But much of this region remains poorly surveyed, and, undoubtedly, many additional species remain to be described. I provide the first dichotomous key for the Papuan members of this genus, which should facilitate description of additional species. Copyright © 2012. Magnolia Press. Source

In the Society Islands, concentrations of temple sites, as are found in aggregate site complexes, are considered material equivalents of kincongregations where lineages proliferated and segmented through time. Such site complexes are ubiquitous in the Windward Society Islands; however, few have been studied in detail, leaving the precise timing of their construction and use unknown. Excavations at 'Opunohu Valley aggregate complexes in the 1960s suggested that major marae complexes served as elite centers and were a late phenomenon. Here I present a new suite of radiocarbon determinations from 'Opunohu Valley structures in five aggregate site complexes. The expanded chronology identifies two different phases of site construction, the first dating to ca. AD 1400-1500 and associated with a major inland expansion, the second post-dating AD 1600 and related to a period of intensified chiefly competition whereby new temples and elaborate house sites were constructed or enlarged and elaborated. The initial construction of temple structures within aggregate sites is both earlier than once thought and multi-staged, linked to community and regional sociopolitical change expressed at the local level. I briefly outline the implications for aggregate site construction and use and correlate these to ethnohistoric references regarding shifting patterns of political. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Evenhuis N.L.,Bishop Museum

The first few words of the title of this symposium are “Anchoring Biodiversity Information”. In order to properly anchor anything for a long-lasting future, a solid foundation needs to have been laid. For the zoological portion of biodiversity information, that firm foundation is best exemplified in the works of Charles Davies Sherborn. This man, like others of his ilk, was intimately focused on indexing names. This incredible focus was a life-long passion for him and culminated in his 9500-page Index Animalium of over 400,000 names of animals. This Index represents not only one of the most prodigious efforts in publication by a single man and the single most important reference to names in zoology, but a permanent legacy to the efforts of an indexer that proved to be an inspiration to many. © Neal L. Evenhuis. Source

Sharp W.D.,Berkeley Geochronology Center | Kahn J.G.,Bishop Museum | Polito C.M.,Berkeley Geochronology Center | Kirch P.V.,University of California at Berkeley
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

In Polynesia, the complex Society Islands chiefdoms constructed elaborate temples (marae), some of which reached monumental proportions and were associated with human sacrifice in the 'Oro cult. We investigated the development of temples on Mo'orea Island by 230Th/U dating of corals used as architectural elements (facing veneers, cut-and-dressed blocks, and offerings). The three largest coastal marae (associated with the highest-ranked chiefly lineages) and 19 marae in the inland 'Opunohu Valley containing coral architectural elements were dated. Fifteen corals fromthe coastal temples meet geochemical criteria for accurate 230Th/U dating, yield reproducible ages for each marae, and have a mean uncertainty of 9 y (2σ). Of 41 corals from wetter inland sites, 12 show some diagenesis and may yield unreliable ages; however, the majority (32) of inland dates are considered accurate. We also obtained six 14C dates on charcoal from four marae. The dates indicate that temple architecture on Mo'orea Island developed rapidly over a period of approximately 140 y (ca. AD 1620-1760), with the largest coastal temples constructed immediately before initial European contact (AD 1767). The result of a seriation of architectural features corresponds closely with this chronology. Acropora coral veneers were superceded by cut-and-dressed Porites coral blocks on altar platforms, followed by development of multitier stepped altar platforms and use of pecked basalt stones associated with the late 'Orocult. This example demonstrates that elaboration of ritual architecture in complex societies may be surprisingly rapid. Source

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