Bishop Moore College

Kerala, India

Bishop Moore College

Kerala, India

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Abraham E.,Bishop Moore College | Deepa B.,Bishop Moore College | Pothan L.A.,Bishop Moore College | Jacob M.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | And 3 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to develop a simple process to obtain an aqueous stable colloid suspension of cellulose nano fibrils from various lignocellulosic fibres. For the preliminary analysis we have studied three different fibres: banana (pseudo stem), jute (stem) and pineapple leaf fibre (PALF). To study the feasibility of extracting cellulose from these raw fibres we have adopted steam explosion technique along with mild chemical treatment. These processes included usual chemical procedures such as alkaline extraction, bleaching, and acid hydrolysis but with a very mild concentration of the chemicals. The chemical constituents of the fibre in each processing step were determined by ASTM standard procedures. Morphological, spectroscopic and thermal analyses of the fibres were carried out and found that the isolation of cellulose nanofibres occurs in the final step of the processing stage and they possess improved thermal stability for various advanced nanotechnological applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cherian B.M.,São Paulo State University | Leao A.L.,São Paulo State University | de Souza S.F.,São Paulo State University | Thomas S.,Mahatma Gandhi University | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Steam explosion process is employed for the successful extraction of cellulose nanofibrils from pineapple leaf fibres for the first time. Steam coupled acid treatment on the pineapple leaf fibres is found to be effective in the depolymerization and defibrillation of the fibre to produce nanofibrils of these fibres. The chemical constituents of the different stages of pineapple fibres undergoing treatment were analyzed according to the ASTM standards. The crystallinity of the fibres is examined from the XRD analysis. Characterization of the fibres by SEM, AFM and TEM supports the evidence for the successful isolation of nanofibrils from pineapple leaf. The developed nanocellulose promises to be a very versatile material having the wide range of biomedical applications and biotechnological applications, such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, wound dressings and medical implants. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Deepa B.,Bishop Moore College | Abraham E.,Bishop Moore College | Cherian B.M.,São Paulo State University | Bismarck A.,Imperial College London | And 5 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

In this work, cellulose nanofibers were extracted from banana fibers via a steam explosion technique. The chemical composition, morphology and thermal properties of the nanofibers were characterized to investigate their suitability for use in bio-based composite material applications. Chemical characterization of the banana fibers confirmed that the cellulose content was increased from 64% to 95% due to the application of alkali and acid treatments. Assessment of fiber chemical composition before and after chemical treatment showed evidence for the removal of non-cellulosic constituents such as hemicelluloses and lignin that occurred during steam explosion, bleaching and acid treatments. Surface morphological studies using SEM and AFM revealed that there was a reduction in fiber diameter during steam explosion followed by acid treatments. Percentage yield and aspect ratio of the nanofiber obtained by this technique is found to be very high in comparison with other conventional methods. TGA and DSC results showed that the developed nanofibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties over the untreated fibers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Rajisha K.R.,CMS College | Maria H.J.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Pothan L.A.,Bishop Moore College | Ahmad Z.,UiTM | Thomas S.,Mahatma Gandhi University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

Potato starch nanocrystals were found to serve as an effective reinforcing agent for natural rubber (NR). Starch nanocrystals were obtained by the sulfuric acid hydrolysis of potato starch granules. After mixing the latex and the starch nanocrystals, the resulting aqueous suspension was cast into film by solvent evaporation method. The composite samples were successfully prepared by varying filler loadings, using a colloidal suspension of starch nanocrystals and NR latex. The morphology of the nanocomposite prepared was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FESEM analysis revealed the size and shape of the crystal and their homogeneous dispersion in the composites. The crystallinity of the nanocomposites was studied using XRD analysis which indicated an overall increase in crystallinity with filler content. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites such as stress-strain behavior, tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break were measured according to ASTM standards. The tensile strength and modulus of the composites were found to improve tremendously with increasing nanocrystal content. This dramatic increase observed can be attributed to the formation of starch nanocrystal network. This network immobilizes the polymer chains leading to an increase in the modulus and other mechanical properties. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Williams G.P.,Bishop Moore College | Gnanadesigan M.,Selvamm Arts and Science College | Ravikumar S.,Alagappa University
Geomicrobiology Journal | Year: 2013

Halobacteria are extreme halophilic archaeobacteria belonging to the family Halobacteriaceae. Geomicrobiologists are concerned about saline tolerant organisms with metal toxicity and bioremediation. Soil samples of Cape comorin coast were analyzed and the zinc, arsenic and cadmium biosorbent halobacterial strains were isolated. Among the fifty-six halobacterial strains isolated, Halobacterium saccharovorum, Hb. salinarium and Natronobacterium gregoryi showed maximum resistance up to 0.01, 0.001 and 0.001 mM against zinc, arsenic and cadmium, respectively. Biokinetic feature such as maximum specific growth rate (μmax. d-1), the rate of trace metal removal [s], and half velocity constant [Ks] were calculated. The SEM-EDS pictures show the metal uptake of the halobacterial isolates. It assumes that Hb. saccharovorum, Hb. salinarium and Natronobacterium gregoryi isolated from the salt pan of Rajakkamangalam coast Tamilnadu in India can be used as metals bioremident. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Sajan D.,Bishop Moore College | Joseph L.,Bishop Moore College | Vijayan N.,National Physical Laboratory India | Karabacak M.,Afyon Kocatepe University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

The spectroscopic properties of the crystallized nonlinear optical molecule l-histidinium bromide monohydrate (abbreviated as l-HBr-mh) have been recorded and analyzed by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV techniques. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and the first order hyperpolarizability of the crystal were calculated with the help of density functional theory computations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using DFT (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) show good agreement with the experimental data. The complete assignments of fundamental vibrations were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intra and intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All Rights Reserved.


Paul S.A.,Bishop Moore College | Joseph K.,Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology | Mathew G.D.G.,Thomas College | Pothen L.A.,Bishop Moore College | Thomas S.,Mahatma Gandhi University
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2010

Polypropylene (PP)/banana fiber (BF) composites were prepared from PP fiber and short banana fiber. BF surfaces were modified chemically to bring about improved interfacial interaction. The polarity parameters of the chemically modified BF were investigated using the solvatochromic technique. The empirical Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic polarity parameters such as hydrogen bond donating ability HBD or acidity (α), hydrogen bond accepting ability HBA or basicity (β), the dipolarity (π), Gutman acceptor number (AN), Reichardts ET (30) values for the chemically modified BF was determined. It was found that the polarity of the BF was decreased after the chemical treatment. The fiber/matrix interactions were found to depend on the polarity of the BF. The improved fiber/matrix interaction was evident from the enhanced tensile and flexural properties. The lower impact properties of the treated fiber composites further point to the improved fiber/matrix interaction. The diameter of the chemically modified BF was measured using an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the changes of the surface morphology of the fibers after the chemical treatments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cordeiro N.,University of Madeira | Faria M.,University of Madeira | Abraham E.,Bishop Moore College | Pothan L.A.,Bishop Moore College
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

The effect of saponin on the surface properties of banana fibres was studied by Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC). Parameters including the dispersive component of the surface energy, surface heterogeneity, surface area, as well as acid-base surface properties were determined for saponin modified banana micro and nanofibres. These parameters show a more extensive saponin coating on the nanofibres with a network formation which is explained by the higher reactivity of nanofibres due to the higher surface energy, specific interaction and higher surface area presented by the nanofibres. The energetic profile indicates that both micro and nanofibres coated with saponin interact with the same, or similar, energy active sites. Saponin treatment reduces considerably the surface area of the fibres, with the consequent decrease in the monolayer capacity. The interaction with the polar probes clearly indicates that saponin treatment creates new polar active sites for specific interactions in both samples. However, the treatment increases predominately the basicity of the fibre surface with more relevance to the nanofibres. This behaviour will lead to better polymer/fibre interaction during composite preparation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cordeiro N.,University of Madeira | Mendona C.,University of Madeira | Pothan L.A.,Bishop Moore College | Varma A.,Bishop Moore College
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

The effect of steam explosion coupled with chemical treatment, on the surface properties of banana fibres obtained from the pseudo-stem of banana plant Musa sapientum was studied in detail by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). IGC experiments were performed in banana fibres from macro to nano stages at 293, 298 and 303 K. The analyzed fibres showed dispersive component of the surface energy between 39.59 and 48.03 mJ/m 2, at 298 K. The interaction between the fibres and the high and low DN/AN* probes indicate the presence of both acidic and basic active sites on the fibres surface. The values of K a and K b suggest that predominantly basic active sites are involved in the specific adsorption process in the nanofibres. During the thermochemical treatment, changes occur in the arrangement of macromolecular chains with the reduction of dispersive groups and the increase in some polar groups. This susceptibility of the surface to change its acid-base characteristics combined with a change in dispersive properties enhance the possibility of specific intermolecular interactions with different solvents, plasticizers, polymers or fillers, which is important to the practical applications of the nanofibres. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


Koshy R.R.,Bishop Moore College | Mary S.K.,Bishop Moore College | Thomas S.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Pothan L.A.,Bishop Moore College
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2015

As a result of the growing environmental awareness (e.g., increased pollution, increasing demand for biodegradable materials, material need for CO2 neutrality and low greenhouse gas emissions, new environmental laws and regulations), manufacturers and scientists are keen to study novel environmental friendly materials. Soy protein isolate (SPI), a protein with reproducible resource, good biocompatibility, biodegradability and processability has a significant potential in the food industry, agriculture, bioscience and biotechnology. The aim of this review is to offer a comprehensive view of the recent state of art of eco-materials based on Soy Protein Isolate (SPI) with special reference to organic and inorganic fillers in the macro, micro and nano scale. Moreover, some applications of SPI-based materials, especially in the field of food preservation and packaging technology, are also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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