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Birzeit, Palestine

Birzeit University , often abbreviated as BZU, is a non-governmental public university located in Birzeit, Palestine, near Ramallah. Established in 1924 as a school for girls, Birzeit University is the oldest university in the State of Palestine.Birzeit University, with the highest admission averages among other Palestinian universities, offers graduate and undergraduate programs in information technology, engineering, science, social policy, nursing and health science, economics, and management. It has 9 faculties, including a graduate faculty. These offer 47 B.A. programs for undergraduate students and 26 M.A. programs for graduate students. Wikipedia.

Abu-Madi M.,Birzeit University | Rayyan M.A.,Engineers Association
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

The main GHGs (CO2, NOx, and SO2) have been quantified based on national energy and population statistics. The results show that the contribution of households' energy consumption in the West Bank to global CO2 emission is about 0.016%, while contribution of total energy consumption by all sectors is about 0.041%. The results show that wood is the most polluting energy source in terms of CO2 and NOx emission, while electricity is the most polluting source in terms of SO 2. Other sources like diesel, kerosene, and LPG that contribute to the GHGs emission are also quantified. The total amounts of CO2, NOx, and SO2 by households in the West Bank are 4.7 million tonne per year, 3.02 thousand tonne per year, and 2.23 thousand tonne per year respectively. This study presents a set of measures that might help in reducing the level of GHGs emission and protect the environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Haddad N.,Birzeit University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

In this work we find the general static vacuum solution of three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Even though all solutions are locally diffeomorphic to pure AdS3, solutions that differ globally from the latter space exist. New solutions with black holes on the AdS3 boundary are found in both global and Poincare coordinates. In the Poincare coordinates such solutions are known as black funnels and black droplets. The black funnel provided by our general static metric is dual to the Hartle-Hawking state in the 1+1 boundary theory. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Abaza K.A.,Birzeit University
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering | Year: 2016

Two empirical Markovian-based models are presented in this paper to predict the transition probabilities associated with rehabilitated pavement. The first model predicts the staged-homogenous transition probabilities as required by the staged-homogenous Markov model. The second model predicts the non-homogenous transition probabilities as applicable to the non-homogenous Markov model. In both the models, the deterioration transition probabilities are predicted as a function of the corresponding values associated with original pavement and two adjustment factors reflecting the impacts of increased traffic load applications and decreased pavement strength. The predicted transition probabilities are used to estimate the future distress ratings required for developing the corresponding life cycle performance curve. The life cycle performance/cost ratio is used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of potential long-term M&R plans. The life cycle performance is defined as the area falling under the life cycle curve. The life cycle cost is estimated to include initial construction cost, routine maintenance cost, major rehabilitation cost, and added user cost due to work zone. Two proposed cost models are used in the case study for estimating routine maintenance and added user costs. The case study indicates that the proposed empirical Markovian-based models have provided reasonable estimates of the transition probabilities as reflected by the corresponding life cycle performance curves. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Mononuclear complex bis(aspirinato) bis(2-methylimidazole) copper(II), Cu(asp)2 (2-MeIm)2 (1), has been synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. The biomimetic catalytic activities of this complex and our previously characterized complexes, Cu(asp)2 (1,2-MeIm)2 (2), Cu(Hsal)2 (1,2-MeIm)2 (3), and Cu(sal)(2-MeIm)3, (4) [H2sal = salicylic acid and MeIm = methylimidazole], for the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol to the corresponding o-quinone and the oxidative dealkylation of 2,4,6-tri-tert- butylphenol to 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 4,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2- benzoquinone as the main products are reported. Complexes 1 and 2 are found to be potent SOD mimics and their SOD activities are compared with those obtained previously for complexes 3 and 4. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gordon N.H.,Case Western Reserve University | Halileh S.,Birzeit University
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2013

The object of this study is to report on determinants of stunting, defined as low height for age, among children in the occupied Palestinian territories. Using 2006-2007 cross sectional survey data collected by the Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics and using multivariate mixed model techniques for logistic regression, the relationships of stunting to characteristics of 9,051 Palestinian children less than 5 years of age living in the Palestinian territories were estimated. These characteristics included demographic and social characteristics of the child, geographic region, type of location (urban, rural, refugee camp) and food insecurity for each governorate. Listed in order of the greater contribution to the explained variation in stunting, children with lower birth weight (P < 0.0001), age greater than 12 months (P < 0.0001), higher levels of food insecurity (P < 0.0001), lower socio-economic status (P < 0.0001), mother illiterate (P = 0.004), urban areas (P = 0.008), and absence of supplementation to breast feeding during the first 4 months of the child's life (P = 0.04) have significantly more stunting. Children living in refugee camps have lower rates of stunting than urban areas; however the difference does not reach statistical significance. The relationship between the child's gender and stunting is not statistically significant. Lack of food security is directly linked to stunting. The continuing incidence of food insecurity means that the deleterious effects of under-nutrition will continue to affect the children of Palestine. Removing the avoidable causes of food insecurity in the occupied Palestinian territories will alleviate under-nutrition and its deleterious effects. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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