Birsa Agricultural University
Kanke, India

Birsa Agricultural University is an agricultural university at Kanke, Ranchi in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Established on 26 June 1981, after its formal inauguration by the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi. Wikipedia.

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Dey P.,ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region | Dey P.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Sarkar A.K.,Birsa Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2011

As in other parts of the world, the indigenous people of Jharkhand hold important context-relevant knowledge and strategies for addressing dwindling natural resources base and climate change. The paper documents some of the collective wealth of indigenous knowledge related to agricultural practices, including land preparation/ manuring/ soil treatment, cropping systems, input management, water resource management and utilization, and soil and water conservation practices, used especially by tribal farmers of the region. Related research and policy issues essential for successful amalgamation of such indigenous knowledge in resource conservation and climate change adaptation are also discussed. It concludes that the indigenous knowledge will help to address food and nutritional security in the face of climate change.

Steele K.A.,Bangor University | Price A.H.,University of Aberdeen | Witcombe J.R.,Bangor University | Shrestha R.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Altering root morphology of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars could improve yields in drought-prone upland ecosystems. Marker-assisted backcross breeding was used to introgress four QTLs for root traits into an upland rice cultivar. The QTLs had previously been identified under experimental conditions in a different genetic background. The introgressed lines and the recurrent parent were grown for 6 years by resource-poor farmers in upland sites in Eastern India and yields recorded. In combination the QTLs significantly increased yield by 1 t ha-1 under relatively favourable field conditions. In less favourable trials, the QTL effects were not detected due to greater heterogeneity in soil-water availability in very low yielding environments and consequent yield variability. Root studies under controlled conditions showed that lines with the introgressions had longer roots throughout tillering than the recurrent parent (14 cm longer 2 weeks after sowing). Therefore, both improved roots and increased yield can be attributed to the introgression of QTLs. This is the first demonstration that marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABC) to introgress multiple root QTLs identified under controlled conditions is an effective strategy to improve farmers' yields of upland rice. The strategy was used to breed a novel upland rice cultivar that has been released in India as Birsa Vikas Dhan 111. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Kumari K.,Birsa Agricultural University | Pande A.,Birsa Agricultural University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Germplasm identification and characterization is an important link between conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. The present study was conducted to characterize the genetic diversity using twelve germplasm of finger millet including two of the same variety (VL-149) but from different regions. Three replica of each germplasm was amplified using seventeen random primers. A total of 113 distinct fragments ranging from 117 bp to 2621 bp were amplified. Of these, 70 (61.9%) were found to be polymorphic. A fingerprint for GPU-28 was obtained. Another fingerprint for genotype VL-315 was generated where two primers (T10S6, T20S4) could distinguish it from other genotypes either by absence or presence of an allele, respectively. In addition to this, another interesting allele which was absent in genotypes of high altitudes (VL-324, VL-315, and VL-149) was discovered. The lowest and highest polymorphisms were obtained within individuals belonging to genotypes OUAT-2 and VL-324. Nei's analysis revealed the highest similarity between OUAT-2 and JWM-1 and the highest distance between BM-1 and VL-315. OUAT-2 and JWM-1, both white seeded germplasms, showed maximum closeness. The study helped in identifying the germplasm in a quick and reproducible manner and studying their relatedness. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Ganguly S.,West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences | Prasad A.,Birsa Agricultural University
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2011

Microflora of the environment plays an important role in the formation of the microflora of the digestive tract of fishes (Strom and Olafsen Microbiology of poecilotherms Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 181-185 1990; Hansen et al. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:461-470 1992). Compared to water, digestive tract is an ecosystem far richer in nutrients and therefore more favorable for the growth of the majority of bacteria. Definitely, not all bacteria in food which gain entry in the digestive tract of fishes establish themselves there (Yan-Bo Wang et al . Aquaculture 281(1-4): 1-4 2008). Part of them adapts themselves in the digestive tract, whereas the others are digested by the enzymes produced by the host organism. Microorganisms present in the digestive tract feed on the food of the host organism which is digested by the enzymes produced by them and by the latter. 'Chymous' gets formed which decides the abundance and qualitative composition of microorganisms present in digestive tract. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kumar U.,Birsa Agricultural University | Thomas E.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2015

In order to measure the forces acting on a fixed fork type transplanting finger during separation of rice seedlings, a laboratory model transplanter was developed.It was equipped with transducers to measure the forces and to measure the speed of rotation of the crank that give motion to the finger. The nursery seed rate was varied from 0.35 to 1.15 kg/m2. Planting velocity varied from 0.29 to 0.55 m/s. Average tangential force on the finger had minimum and maximum magnitudes of 3.68 N and 4.70 N, respectively for 15 mm mat and 3.10 N and 5.32 N, respectively for 20 mm mat. However, one millisecond peak value of the resultant forces had a maximum value of 28.3 N and 29.7 N for 15 mm and 20 mm mats respectively.These values can be used for calculating the magnitude of deflection during the design of the transplanting finger. © 2015, Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.

Jayanti V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Rai P.,Birsa Agricultural University | Dasgupta S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | De S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Journal of Food Process Engineering | Year: 2010

Clarification of tender coconut water was carried out in a continuous stirred ultrafiltration cell at transmembrane pressures of 276, 414, 552 and 690 kPa and at stirrer speeds of 800 (Reynolds number [Re] = 0.93 × 10 5), 1,000 (Re = 1.17 × 105), 1,400 (Re = 1.63 × 105) and 1,600 (Re = 1.87 × 105) rpm, for each pressure. Permeate flux decline was analyzed using a first-order kinetic model for the development of the polarized layer resistance. Correlations were proposed for the steady-state polarized layer resistance with the operating conditions, e.g., transmembrane pressure difference, Reynolds number and membrane resistance. Decrease in membrane permeability after subsequent experiments was also quantified. Average irreversible fouling resistance was estimated as 7.5 × 1012 m-1. Using the developed design equations of the stirred continuous ultrafiltration system, finally, the performance of such system in terms of productivity as function of operating conditions, membrane area and number of cleaning cycles was also evaluated. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The application of membrane technology is one of the emerging areas in the food industry. The major application includes fruit juice clarification and concentration. Because of the nonthermal nature of membrane separation, the juice can be clarified at room temperature and packed aseptically for longer shelf life without the loss of its initial quality parameters. The major problem during clarification is decline in permeate flux of fruit juice with time. Identification of the reasons for flux decline is essential for designing membrane modules to make the clarification process commercially viable. The quality of juice during storage is vital, so the determination of the variation of its physicochemical properties during storage is also important. The present study helps in designing membrane modules for the production of clarified tender coconut. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Rai C.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Rai P.,Birsa Agricultural University | Majumdar G.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | De S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | DasGupta S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2010

Flux decline mechanism during microfiltration of watermelon juice was studied in detail. Identification of the flux decline mechanism was carried out by conducting experiments in an unstirred batch cell. Using the identified mechanism, flux decline was predicted during stirred microfiltration in a continuous mode. The operating pressure range was from 137 to 276 kPa and that of Reynolds number was 1.40 × 10 5 to 1.87 × 10 5. Cake formation was identified as the main reason for flux decline. Prediction of flux decline during stirred continuous microfiltration using this mechanism was found adequate. © 2008 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Ganguly S.,West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences | Prasad A.,Birsa Agricultural University
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

Immunomodulator is a substance which stimulates or suppresses the components of immune system including both innate and adaptive immune responses (Agarwal and Singh, 1969). The modulation of immune system by various medicinal plant products has become a subject for scientific investigations currently worldwide. Keeping this in view, the present article has been constructed to highlight the importance of herbal extracts and cow urine distillate as potent immunomodulators for livestock. ©2011 Academic Journals.

Prasad D.,Birsa Agricultural University | Yadava M.S.,Birsa Agricultural University | Singh C.S.,Birsa Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted at Kanke, Ranchi under irrigated condition in 2008-09 and 2009-10 to evaluate the production potential, nutrient uptake, resource use efficiency and economics of eight rice (Oryza sa-tiva L.)-based cropping systems. Eight cropping systems viz. rice-fallow, rice-wheat {Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol}, rice-mustard {Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj & Cosson}-greengram {Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek}, rice-rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L)-greengram, rice-potato (Solanum tuberosum L)-greengram, rice-wheat + mustard (5:1)-greengram, rice-wheat + rajmash (5:1)-greengram, and rice-potato + wheat (1:1)-greengram were evaluated in the study. Among the cropping systems, rice-potato + wheat (1:1)-greengram cropping system recorded highest system productivity (20.39 t REGY/ha), land use efficiency (95.89), production efficiency (55.58 kg REGY/ha/day) and employment generation (293 man days/ha) as compared to other cropping systems. Crop sequences with potato as rabi crop resulted in significantly higher N, P and K uptake, while S uptake was significantly higher in rice-mustard-greengram sequence. Economic analysis revealed that the maximum net profit (125 × 103 ^/ha), benefitcost ratio (1.61) and monetary efficiency (342.7 ^/ha/day) were recorded in rice-potato-greengram crop sequence closely followed by rice-potato + wheat (1:1)-greengram, which were significantly superior over other cropping systems. Based on study, rice-potato + wheat (1:1)-greengram and rice-potato-greengram were found to be the most productive, resource-use efficient and remunerative cropping system under irrigated conditions and can be followed in place of rice-wheat or rice-fallow systems for higher profitability.

News Article | December 21, 2015

Food security is a phrase that's bandied about, but increasing food security can have real impact on people's lives, and can come about by different means. In this case, the change in people's lives has come about through the creation of a new rice variety, suitable for growing by subsistence farmers in upland regions, who have been largely ignored by India's 'green' agricultural revolution. Professor John Witcombe and Dr Daljit Singh Virk of the University's School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography are responsible for developing the new strain, working with partners Gramin Vikas Trust (GVT), KRIBHCO Bhavan, NOIDA, New Delhi and Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkand, India. The new variety has rapidly become the most popular choice for growing in upland regions, which are unable to take advantage of modern rice strains developed for irrigated fertile lowlands. Its benefits are that it is both drought tolerant and gives good yields in good growing conditions. The rice, Ashoka 200F, was developed for resource-poor farmers, using a new method of plant breeding. Instead of conventional plant breeding, when thousands of plants are crossed in the hope of finding beneficial traits, fewer plants are crossed, but carefully selected for desired characteristics, such as drought tolerance and a good yield. The pioneering plant breeding method, called Client Oriented Breeding also differs from conventional commercial development of new crop strains, as it involves the growers in the selection of plant traits which will be important to them, such as good taste, short cooking time and good straw for fodder. "The figures are quite staggering," explains Prof Witcombe. "We estimate that around a million smallholders are growing formally released Ashoka, bringing in a benefit of £12 million a year to their households. Added to that, many farmers are saving and sharing their own seeds. "Our evidence shows that over 80% of farmers surveyed said that the rice they were growing was lasting around a month longer than previously- saving them a month's purchase of rice. Ashoka's early and large crop provides food for the 'hungry season- as well as being able to supply fodder for animals. Farmers with surplus grain for sale were also able to sell 45% more grain, and gain a higher price as it's a higher quality grain." Where other rice varieties have failed to take hold, the approach we take, in involving farmers in the growing and selecting, ensures that we chose traits that are important to them and that they know about and are keen to grow the new variety," said Dr Daljit Virk. "Ashoka varieties have transformed me from subsistence to surplus farmer. With the increased income from seed sale of Ashoka varieties I now own my own tractor and irrigation pumps. I now grow many crops in both seasons. My social status has been enhanced and I am now a nodal person for various government extension agencies." Mr. Rajinder Dhan, farmer and COB participant, Jharkhand, India said: "Farmers who adopt Ashoka varieties continue to grow them for their earlier maturity, excellent drought tolerance in the uplands and high grain quality. I use Ashoka rice for special occasions because of its good cooking quality." The Indian Council for Agricultural Research has now adopted the Client Oriented breeding as a mainstream approach for breeding new varieties of grain for drought-prone areas or where traditional approaches have not been rewarding. Added to this, many scientists have adopted the approach as a result of dozens of publications and training programmes conducted by the Bangor University team in South Asia and Africa "The stories from individual farmers are so real and make it very easy for us to appreciate what has been achieved. It is also very satisfying to see our varieties mainstreamed in the seed production chain. "We started on the Client Breeding Programme in about 1995 which is a very short time in plant breeding terms. With conventional approaches it would not have been possible to achieve the impact we have had. "It is great if other plant breeders adopt are approach and it should have a bigger impact in the long run. I personally know several plant breeders whose methods are influenced by our approach. The problem is that it is very difficult to quantify how much this influence has helped them achieve success in their breeding programmes. How much is due to their own skills and knowledge and how much is from methods learnt from us? Client Oriented Breeding is a philosophy – always think about what farmers want and keep your breeding methods as simple as possible to achieve this – so it can be used in many different ways." Explore further: Improving the livelihoods of over 5M households in India and Nepal

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