The Birmingham Childrens Hospital Nhs Foundation Trust

Birmingham, United Kingdom

The Birmingham Childrens Hospital Nhs Foundation Trust

Birmingham, United Kingdom
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Cox J.H.,University of Birmingham | Seri S.,Aston University | Seri S.,The Birmingham Childrens Hospital Nhs Foundation Trust | Cavanna A.E.,University of Birmingham | And 3 more authors.
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2014

About one third of patients with epilepsy are refractory to medical treatment. For these patients, alternative treatment options include implantable neurostimulation devices such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and responsive neuro-stimulation systems (RNS). We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of these devices in patients with refractory epilepsy across their lifespan. VNS has the largest evidence base, and numerous randomized controlled trials and open-label studies support its use in the treatment of refractory epilepsy. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1997 for treatment of partial seizures, but has also shown significant benefit in the treatment of generalized seizures. Results in adult populations have been more encouraging than in pediatric populations, where more studies are required. VNS is considered a safe and well-tolerated treatment, and serious side effects are rare. DBS is a well-established treatment for several movement disorders, and has a small evidence base for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus has shown the most encouraging results, where significant decreases in seizure frequency were reported. Other potential targets include the centromedian thalamic nucleus, hippocampus, cerebellum, and basal ganglia structures. Preliminary results on RNS, new-generation implantable neuro-stimulation devices which stimulate brain structures only when epileptic activity is detected, are encouraging. Overall, implantable neurostimulation devices appear to be a safe and beneficial treatment option for patients in whom medical treatment has failed to adequately control their epilepsy. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are required to provide a sufficient evidence base for the inclusion of DBS and RNS in clinical guidelines. © 2014 Cox et al.

Seri S.,Aston University | Seri S.,The Birmingham Childrens Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Di Lorenzo G.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Pisano T.,Aston University | And 5 more authors.
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2012

We investigated 50 young patients with a diagnosis of Rolandic Epilepsy (RE) for the presence of abnormalities in autonomic tone compared with 50 young patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy with absences and 50 typically developing children of comparable age. We analyzed time domain (N-N interval, pNN50) and frequency domain (High Frequency (HF), Low Frequency (LF) and LF/HF ratio) indices from ten-minute resting EKG activity. Patients with RE showed significantly higher HF and lower LF power and lower LF/HF ratio than controls, independent of the epilepsy group, and did not show significant differences in any other autonomic index with respect to the two control groups. In RE, we found a negative relationship between both seizure load and frequency of sleep interictal EEG abnormalities with parasympathetic drive levels. These changes might be the expression of adaptive mechanisms to prevent the excessive sympathetic drive seen in patients with refractory epilepsies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Brazzo D.,Aston University | Brazzo D.,Casimiro Mondino Foundation | Di Lorenzo G.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Bill P.,The Birmingham Childrens Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate visual habituation - a measure of visual cortical excitability - in photosensitive patients in pediatric age and compare the findings with a matched sample with idiopathic generalized epilepsies without photosensitivity and with normally developing children. Methods: We presented a full-field black-and-white checkerboard pattern, at 3. reversal/s with 100% contrast binocularly for 600 consecutive trials and measured the N75-P100 and P100-N145 pattern-reversal visual evoked potential inter-peak amplitudes and N75, P100, N145 latencies for the six blocks of 100 responses. As a measure of habituation we used the slope of the linear regression line of the N75-P100 and P100-N145 peak-to-peak amplitudes. The slope of the linear regression line of the N75-P100 and P100-N145 latencies was also analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the three groups in the slope index of N75-P100 PR-VEP amplitude, with increased or constant amplitude in the PS group compare to the IGE and ND across the six blocks. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that photosensitivity is associated with altered control of excitatory and inhibitory cortical processes. The causal relationship between habituation deficit and photo-paroxysmal response needs to be further investigated with longitudinal studies. Significance: This study supports the hypothesis that suppression of PR-VEP is a sensitive intermediate phenotype, which discriminates patients with photosensitivity from those with generalized epilepsies in pediatric age. © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

Osman A.,Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust | Seri S.,Aston University | Seri S.,The Birmingham Childrens Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Cavanna A.E.,Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust | And 2 more authors.
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2016

Neuropsychiatry services provide specialist input into the assessment and management of behavioral symptoms associated with a range of neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Despite the centrality of epilepsy to neuropsychiatry and the recent expansion of neuropsychiatry service provision, little is known about the clinical characteristics of patients with epilepsy who are routinely seen by a specialist neuropsychiatry service. This retrospective study filled this gap by retrospectively evaluating a naturalistic series of 60 consecutive patients with epilepsy referred to and assessed within a neuropsychiatry setting. Fifty-two patients (86.7%) had active epilepsy and were under the ongoing care of the referring neurologist for seizure management. The majority of patients (N = 42; 70.0%) had a diagnosis of localization-related epilepsy, with temporal lobe epilepsy as the most common epilepsy type (N = 37; 61.7%). Following clinical assessment, 39 patients (65.0%) fulfilled formal diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder; nonepileptic attack disorder (N = 37; 61.7%), major depression (N = 23; 38.3%), and generalized anxiety disorder (N = 16; 26.7%) were the most commonly diagnosed comorbidities. The clinical characteristics of patients seen in specialist neuropsychiatry settings are in line with the results from previous studies in neurology clinics in terms of both epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidity. Our findings confirm the need for the development and implementation of structured care pathways for the neuropsychiatric aspects of epilepsy, with focus on comorbid nonepileptic attacks and affective and anxiety symptoms. This is of particular importance in consideration of the impact of behavioral symptoms on patients' health-related quality of life. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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