Birmingham Business Park is a business park operated by Goodman, an Australian property group, situated in the borough of Solihull, West Midlands of England, about 9 miles east of Birmingham city centre.Current residents of the business park include Orange, Beiersdorf, Hewlett Packard and Fujitsu.The park lies close to the depressed district of Chelmsley Wood, part of a 'regeneration zone'. According to Richard Cutler, Goodman's director of strategy, 78 per cent of workers at the park are not residents of the zone. Wikipedia.


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Pohl O.,PregLem SA | Osterloh I.,Birmingham Business Park | Gotteland J.-P.,PregLem SA
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

What is known and objective: Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator for the treatment of benign gynaecological conditions such as uterine myoma. In vitro, it is mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 and to a small extent by CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has been shown to be a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of erythromycin at steady-state concentrations on the pharmacokinetics of UPA. Effects on the pharmacokinetics of the mono-demethylated metabolite of UPA (PGL4002) were also evaluated. Methods: This was a non-randomized, single-sequence, two-period, open, single-dose study in 18 healthy female subjects. Subjects received oral UPA (20 mg) once daily on days 1 and 13 and twice-daily erythromycin propionate administrations (500 mg) from days 9 through 17. Results: Geometric mean Cmax and AUCs of UPA were increased by 24% [geometric mean ratio point estimate (90% CI): 1·24 (1·01-1·52)] and +224% and +227% [geometric mean ratio point estimates (90% CI): AUC0-t 3·24 (2·75-3·83) and AUC0-∞ (3·27 (2·79-3·83)], respectively, with no effect on median tmax or t1/2. Geometric mean Cmax of PGL4002 was decreased by 47% [geometric mean ratio point estimate (90% CI): 0·523 (0·44-0·62)], but AUCs were increased by +62% and +66% [geometric mean ratio point estimates (90% CI): AUC0-t 1·62 (1·43-1·85) and AUC 0-∞ by 1·66 (1·47-1·88)], respectively, with no effect on median tmax. However, geometric mean t 1/2.doubled from 24 h to 48 h. No subject was discontinued from the study due to adverse events. What is new and conclusion: Concomitant use of ulipristal acetate with erythromycin at therapeutic concentrations led to a limited increase in Cmax and a 3-fold increase in AUCs for UPA and to a decrease in Cmax and an increase in AUCs and prolonged elimination for PGL4002. This indicates that inhibition of CYP3A4 impacted rate and extent of absorption of UPA and also its metabolism by slowing the elimination of its metabolite PGL4002. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Zhang Y.,Birmingham Business Park | Gregory M.,Charles University | Neely A.,Charles University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2016

This paper addresses the operations challenges of effectively managing professional services on a global scale. The specific context for the study is professional engineering services and particularly those that are delivered globally - global engineering services (GES). Estimates suggest that the market for GES was around US$930 billion in 2012, rising to US$1.4 trillion by 2020 (ISG, 2013). Yet this influential sector receives scant attention in the operations management literature. The paper draws on six case studies to explore the operations management challenges of delivering GES. In doing so the paper introduces the concept of network capabilities for GES, highlighting the centrality that: (i) network resources - accessing and deploying dispersed resources, (ii) network coordination - coordinating and integrating network activities, and (iii) network learning - collective learning and knowledge management, all play in enabling the successful operational management of GES. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Ho W.K.,Northumbria University | Matthews J.N.,Northumbria University | Henderson R.,Northumbria University | Farewell D.,University of Cardiff | Rodgers L.R.,Birmingham Business Park
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2012

Missing data arise in crossover trials, as they do in any form of clinical trial. Several papers have addressed the problems that missing data create, although almost all of these assume that the probability that a planned observation is missing does not depend on the value that would have been observed; that is, the data are missing at random (MAR). In many applications, this assumption is likely to be untenable; in which case, the data are missing not at random (MNAR). We investigate the effect on estimates of the treatment effect that assume data are MAR when data are actually MNAR. We also propose using the assumption of no carryover treatment effect, which is usually required for this design, to permit the estimation of a treatment effect when data are MNAR. The results are applied to a trial comparing two treatments for neuropathic pain and show that the estimate of treatment effect is sensitive to the assumption of MAR. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..


Flanagan N.,Birmingham Business Park | McAlister C.,Birmingham Business Park
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

Acts of aggression and defence during sexual assaults often lead to transfer of DNA from victim to assailant. Of sexual assault cases recorded by the FSS between 2005 and 2010, approximately 20% and 3% involved digital penetration of the victim's vagina or anus, respectively. Of the 309 cases where digital penetration was alleged, a suspect was arrested within approximately 1 day in 135 cases and fingernail samples were taken in 101 of these cases. In this study the transfer and persistence of DNA under the fingernails after an act of digital penetration were examined, (a) to assist investigators in determining whether to obtain such samples initially and (b) to assist evaluators in assessing the evidential value of female DNA profiles post analysis. Full female profiles were obtained from all swabs collected at 0 and 6 h after digital penetration, indicating that female DNA was always transferred and persisted in the short term. Furthermore, full female profiles were produced from three-quarters of samples collected after 12 h whilst mixed profiles were produced in the majority of samples taken after 18 h. The analysis of several variables indicated that hand washing had a significant effect on the persistence of female DNA profiles. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Tucker V.C.,Birmingham Business Park | Hopwood A.J.,Birmingham Business Park | Sprecher C.J.,Promega Corporation | McLaren R.S.,Promega Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

In response to the ENFSI and EDNAP groups' call for new STR multiplexes for Europe, Promega ® developed a suite of four new DNA profiling kits. This paper describes the developmental validation study performed on the PowerPlex ® ESI 16 (European Standard Investigator 16) and the PowerPlex ® ESI 17 Systems. The PowerPlex ® ESI 16 System combines the 11 loci compatible with the UK National DNA Database ®, contained within the AmpFlSTR ® SGM Plus ® PCR Amplification Kit, with five additional loci: D2S441, D10S1248, D22S1045, D1S1656 and D12S391. The multiplex was designed to reduce the amplicon size of the loci found in the AmpFlSTR ® SGM Plus ® kit. This design facilitates increased robustness and amplification success for the loci used in the national DNA databases created in many countries, when analyzing degraded DNA samples. The PowerPlex ® ESI 17 System amplifies the same loci as the PowerPlex ® ESI 16 System, but with the addition of a primer pair for the SE33 locus. Tests were designed to address the developmental validation guidelines issued by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), and those of the DNA Advisory Board (DAB). Samples processed include DNA mixtures, PCR reactions spiked with inhibitors, a sensitivity series, and 306 United Kingdom donor samples to determine concordance with data generated with the AmpFlSTR ® SGM Plus ® kit. Allele frequencies from 242 white Caucasian samples collected in the United Kingdom are also presented. The PowerPlex ® ESI 16 and ESI 17 Systems are robust and sensitive tools, suitable for the analysis of forensic DNA samples. Full profiles were routinely observed with 62.5 pg of a fully heterozygous single source DNA template. This high level of sensitivity was found to impact on mixture analyses, where 54-86% of unique minor contributor alleles were routinely observed in a 1:19 mixture ratio. Improved sensitivity combined with the robustness afforded by smaller amplicons has substantially improved the quantity of data obtained from degraded samples, and the improved chemistry confers exceptional tolerance to high levels of laboratory prepared inhibitors. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


In cases of sexual assault where sperm are not present, preferential lysis fails to yield the DNA profile of the assailant. The Forensic Science Service® has developed a technique combining fluorescence in situ hybridisation and laser microdissection to enable the identification and isolation of male cells that may be present in azoospermic semen on vaginal swabs from victims of sexual assault. This technique has been used successfully by The Forensic Science Service® in a sexual assault case providing evidence for the assertion that the suspect had vaginal intercourse with the victim rather than he had not. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Patel G.,Birmingham Business Park | Hopwood A.,Birmingham Business Park
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2013

Luminol is a presumptive test reagent used for the location of latent bloodstains. Various formulations are used by different forensic practitioners and commercial products are also widely available. There is little concurrence between authors with regards to the sensitivity limits of luminol which can vary significantly depending upon the substrate. We evaluated the sensitivity and stability of five different luminol formulations on a range of blood dilutions. All formulations showed an overall decrease in performance over 24 h though the effect was more gradual on a non-porous surface compared to porous. We found that BlueStar® Magnum showed the greatest sensitivity compared to other formulations and detected 50 μl of 1/100,000 blood dilutions on both porous and non-porous surfaces. Two formulations of luminol were selected based on the result of the sensitivity and stability study and were assessed for their impact on the DNA profiling process. There was a statistically significant improvement in DNA profile peak area from luminol-treated samples when compared to control samples of neat blood stains. However, at the weaker blood dilution of 1/1,000, the difference between control and luminol-treated samples was dependent on the substrate type with porous (fabric) samples showing a significant difference and non-porous (tile) swabbed samples requiring further work to conclusively ascertain the effect. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Esfahbodi A.,Birmingham Business Park | Zhang Y.,Birmingham Business Park | Watson G.,Birmingham Business Park
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2016

Manufacturing firms in developing countries have recently started to adopt sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) to manage their environmental responsibility. However, achieving sustainable production within a SSCM context has been one of the most pressing challenges in emerging markets, as it may not involve securing financial benefits. Given the scarcity of empirical evidence, this study raises the proposition that SSCM practices can be both environmentally necessary and good business in the context of emerging economies. In light of this, this paper develops and empirically assesses an integrated SSCM performance framework underpinned by the resource dependence theory (RDT) lens, linking SSCM practices and their relationship with organisational performance. Using the tenants of RDT, this research develops an understanding of how firms use their partners' resources to implement SSCM practices and manage their performance implications.Conducting an empirical study of 128 manufacturing firms (72 in China and 56 in Iran), this study examines and compares the impact of SSCM adoption on environmental and cost performance within these two emerging markets. Using a multiple regression analysis, the results show that there are more similarities than differences amongst these two emerging economies. The results also reveal that the adoption of SSCM practices results in higher levels of the environmental performance of Chinese and Iranian manufacturers, but does not necessarily lead to improved cost performance. Our findings suggest that firms operating within emerging markets need to undertake SSCM initiatives with a broader consideration of their financial bottom line in order to minimise trade-offs between the environmental and cost performance. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Neumann C.,Pennsylvania State University | Evett I.W.,Birmingham Business Park | Skerrett J.E.,Birmingham Business Park | Mateos-Garcia I.,Birmingham Business Park
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

The authors have proposed a quantitative method for assessing weight of evidence in the case where a fingermark from a crime scene is compared with a set of control prints from the ten fingers of a suspect. The approach is based on the notion of calculating a Likelihood Ratio (LR) that addresses a pair of propositions relating to the individual who left the crime mark. The current method considers only information extracted from minutiae, such as location, direction and type. It does not consider other information usually taken into account by fingerprint examiners, such as the general pattern of the ridge flow on the mark and the control prints. In this paper, we propose an improvement to our model that allows a fingerprint examiner to take advantage of pattern information when assessing the evidential weight to be assigned to a fingerprint comparison. We present an extension of the formal analysis proposed earlier and we illustrate our approach with an example. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


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