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Birmingham Business Park is a business park operated by Goodman, an Australian property group, situated in the borough of Solihull, West Midlands of England, about 9 miles east of Birmingham city centre.Current residents of the business park include Orange, Beiersdorf, Hewlett Packard and Fujitsu.The park lies close to the depressed district of Chelmsley Wood, part of a 'regeneration zone'. According to Richard Cutler, Goodman's director of strategy, 78 per cent of workers at the park are not residents of the zone. Wikipedia.

Ho W.K.,Northumbria University | Matthews J.N.,Northumbria University | Henderson R.,Northumbria University | Farewell D.,University of Cardiff | Rodgers L.R.,Birmingham Business Park
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2012

Missing data arise in crossover trials, as they do in any form of clinical trial. Several papers have addressed the problems that missing data create, although almost all of these assume that the probability that a planned observation is missing does not depend on the value that would have been observed; that is, the data are missing at random (MAR). In many applications, this assumption is likely to be untenable; in which case, the data are missing not at random (MNAR). We investigate the effect on estimates of the treatment effect that assume data are MAR when data are actually MNAR. We also propose using the assumption of no carryover treatment effect, which is usually required for this design, to permit the estimation of a treatment effect when data are MNAR. The results are applied to a trial comparing two treatments for neuropathic pain and show that the estimate of treatment effect is sensitive to the assumption of MAR. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Zhang Y.,Birmingham Business Park | Gregory M.,Charles University | Neely A.,Charles University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2016

This paper addresses the operations challenges of effectively managing professional services on a global scale. The specific context for the study is professional engineering services and particularly those that are delivered globally - global engineering services (GES). Estimates suggest that the market for GES was around US$930 billion in 2012, rising to US$1.4 trillion by 2020 (ISG, 2013). Yet this influential sector receives scant attention in the operations management literature. The paper draws on six case studies to explore the operations management challenges of delivering GES. In doing so the paper introduces the concept of network capabilities for GES, highlighting the centrality that: (i) network resources - accessing and deploying dispersed resources, (ii) network coordination - coordinating and integrating network activities, and (iii) network learning - collective learning and knowledge management, all play in enabling the successful operational management of GES. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

In cases of sexual assault where sperm are not present, preferential lysis fails to yield the DNA profile of the assailant. The Forensic Science Service® has developed a technique combining fluorescence in situ hybridisation and laser microdissection to enable the identification and isolation of male cells that may be present in azoospermic semen on vaginal swabs from victims of sexual assault. This technique has been used successfully by The Forensic Science Service® in a sexual assault case providing evidence for the assertion that the suspect had vaginal intercourse with the victim rather than he had not. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pohl O.,Preglem SA | Osterloh I.,Birmingham Business Park | Gotteland J.-P.,Preglem SA
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

What is known and objective: Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator for the treatment of benign gynaecological conditions such as uterine myoma. In vitro, it is mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 and to a small extent by CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has been shown to be a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of erythromycin at steady-state concentrations on the pharmacokinetics of UPA. Effects on the pharmacokinetics of the mono-demethylated metabolite of UPA (PGL4002) were also evaluated. Methods: This was a non-randomized, single-sequence, two-period, open, single-dose study in 18 healthy female subjects. Subjects received oral UPA (20 mg) once daily on days 1 and 13 and twice-daily erythromycin propionate administrations (500 mg) from days 9 through 17. Results: Geometric mean Cmax and AUCs of UPA were increased by 24% [geometric mean ratio point estimate (90% CI): 1·24 (1·01-1·52)] and +224% and +227% [geometric mean ratio point estimates (90% CI): AUC0-t 3·24 (2·75-3·83) and AUC0-∞ (3·27 (2·79-3·83)], respectively, with no effect on median tmax or t1/2. Geometric mean Cmax of PGL4002 was decreased by 47% [geometric mean ratio point estimate (90% CI): 0·523 (0·44-0·62)], but AUCs were increased by +62% and +66% [geometric mean ratio point estimates (90% CI): AUC0-t 1·62 (1·43-1·85) and AUC 0-∞ by 1·66 (1·47-1·88)], respectively, with no effect on median tmax. However, geometric mean t 1/2.doubled from 24 h to 48 h. No subject was discontinued from the study due to adverse events. What is new and conclusion: Concomitant use of ulipristal acetate with erythromycin at therapeutic concentrations led to a limited increase in Cmax and a 3-fold increase in AUCs for UPA and to a decrease in Cmax and an increase in AUCs and prolonged elimination for PGL4002. This indicates that inhibition of CYP3A4 impacted rate and extent of absorption of UPA and also its metabolism by slowing the elimination of its metabolite PGL4002. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Puch-Solis R.,Birmingham Business Park | Kirkham A.J.,Birmingham Business Park | Gill P.,University of Strathclyde | Gill P.,University of Oslo | And 3 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

The low template stochastic DNA threshold is used to infer the genotype of a single STR allelic peak. For example, within the context of the UK National DNA Database, the stochastic threshold is used to decide whether a DNA profile, consisting of a peak in position of allele a, is uploaded as aF or as an aa homozygote. The F designation acts as a 'fail-safe' wild card that is designed to capture the possibility of allele drop-out and to do this it will match any allele. If a profile is wrongly designated as an aa homozygote, the database search will be unnecessarily restricted and may fail to match a perpetrator reference sample on the database. If the stochastic threshold is too high, then this increases the number of adventitious matches, which in turn compromises the utility of the national DNA database. There are many different methods used to process DNA profiles. Often, the same stochastic threshold is used for each process (typically 150 rfu). But this means that more sensitive methods will have a threshold that is too low (and vice versa) and the risks of a wrongful designation are correspondingly greater. Recently, it was suggested that logistic regression could be used to relate the stochastic threshold to a defined probability of drop-out in order to properly evaluate the risks associated with a given stochastic threshold. In this article we introduce a new methodology to calculate the stochastic threshold that a practitioner could easily implement. The threshold depends on the sensitivity of the method employed, and is adjusted to be equivalent across all methods used to analyse DNA profiles. This ensures that risks associated with misdesignation are equivalent across all methods. In effect a uniformity of methods, underpinned by an analysis of risks associated with misdesignation can be achieved. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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