Butchart S.H.M.,BirdLife International |
Butchart S.H.M.,United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Center |
Scharlemann J.P.W.,United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Center |
Evans M.I.,BirdLife International |
And 49 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of conservation efforts and now cover nearly 13% of the world's land surface, with the world's governments committed to expand this to 17%. However, as biodiversity continues to decline, the effectiveness of PAs in reducing the extinction risk of species remains largely untested. We analyzed PA coverage and trends in species' extinction risk at globally significant sites for conserving birds (10,993 Important Bird Areas, IBAs) and highly threatened vertebrates and conifers (588 Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, AZEs) (referred to collectively hereafter as 'important sites'). Species occurring in important sites with greater PA coverage experienced smaller increases in extinction risk over recent decades: the increase was half as large for bird species with&50% of the IBAs at which they occur completely covered by PAs, and a third lower for birds, mammals and amphibians restricted to protected AZEs (compared with unprotected or partially protected sites). Globally, half of the important sites for biodiversity conservation remain unprotected (49% of IBAs, 51% of AZEs). While PA coverage of important sites has increased over time, the proportion of PA area covering important sites, as opposed to less important land, has declined (by 0.45-1.14% annually since 1950 for IBAs and 0.79-1.49% annually for AZEs). Thus, while appropriately located PAs may slow the rate at which species are driven towards extinction, recent PA network expansion has under-represented important sites. We conclude that better targeted expansion of PA networks would help to improve biodiversity trends. © 2012 Butchart et al.
Ramirez-Villegas J.,CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change |
Ramirez-Villegas J.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture |
Ramirez-Villegas J.,University of Leeds |
Devenish C.,BirdLife International Americas Secretariat |
And 5 more authors.
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2014
Biodiversity in the Tropical Andes is under continuous threat from anthropogenic activities. Projected changes in climate will likely exacerbate this situation. Using species distribution models, we assess possible future changes in the diversity and climatic niche size of an unprecedented number of species for the region. We modeled a broad range of taxa (11,012 species of birds and vascular plants), including both endemic and widespread species and provide a comprehensive estimation of climate change impacts on the Andes. We find that if no dispersal is assumed, by 2050s, more than 50% of the species studied are projected to undergo reductions of at least 45% in their climatic niche, whilst 10% of species could be extinct. Even assuming unlimited dispersal, most of the Andean endemics (comprising ~5% of our dataset) would become severely threatened (>50% climatic niche loss). While some areas appear to be climatically stable (e.g. Pichincha and Imbabura in Ecuador; and Nariño, Cauca, Valle del Cauca and Putumayo in Colombia) and hence depict little diversity loss and/or potential species gains, major negative impacts were also observed. Tropical high Andean grasslands (páramos and punas) and evergreen montane forests, two key ecosystems for the provision of environmental services in the region, are projected to experience negative changes in species richness and high rates of species turnover. Adapting to these impacts would require a landscape-network based approach to conservation, including protected areas, their buffer zones and corridors. A central aspect of such network is the implementation of an integrated landscape management approach based on sustainable management and restoration practices covering wider areas than currently contemplated. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.
Bird J.P.,BirdLife International |
Buchanan G.M.,Royal Society for the Protection of Birds |
Lees A.C.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi |
Clay R.P.,BirdLife International Americas Secretariat |
And 3 more authors.
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2012
Aim We aimed to complete the first systematic assessment of extinction risk based on projected population declines derived from spatially explicit habitat projections for any taxonomic group at a regional scale, to use the outputs to ascertain the efficacy of an existing protected area network in covering species of conservation concern, and identify gaps therein. Location This study focused on Amazonia; an area of exceptional biodiversity, currently experiencing the highest absolute rate of forest loss globally but where the proportion of species assessed as 'threatened' on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List in the region is below global averages. Methods For all forest-dependent Amazonian bird species (814), we revised extinction risk estimates by combining data from a spatially explicit deforestation model with generation length estimates. By overlaying distribution maps for these revised threatened species, we identified crisis areas (areas of projected deforestation supporting the highest numbers of threatened species), refugia (areas projected to retain forest supporting the highest numbers of threatened species) and areas of high irreplaceability: short- and long-term priorities for new protected areas (PAs). Results The number of species qualifying as threatened rose substantially from 24 (3%) to 64-92 (8-11%). Areas of particular concern are the crisis and highly irreplaceable areas within the 'arc of deforestation' in the southern Brazilian Amazon states of Rondônia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Main conclusions Through a novel application of the IUCN Red List criteria, we present a spatially accurate rendering of the extinction risks of Amazonian birds. Important areas in the Amazon are not secure. We identify priorities for expansion of the PAs network and key locations where protection should be enforced. We recommend a collaborative approach employing our methods to repeat this process for other taxonomic groups. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lesterhuis A.J.,BirdLife International Americas Secretariat |
Clay R.P.,BirdLife International Americas Secretariat
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia | Year: 2014
The doraditos (Pseudocolopteryx spp.) are a little-known group of small, yellow-breasted tyrants, distributed mainly in southern South America. All five species occur in Paraguay, including Pseudocolopteryx citreola, here documented in the country for the first time. The distribution and habitat preferences of the species in Paraguay are clarified, and well-documented records for the three rarest species P. acutipennis, citreola, and dinelliana are listed in full. Owing to the difficulty in distinguishing between the species, a field key is provided to assist observers in making correct field identifications.