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Bird J.P.,BirdLife International | Buchanan G.M.,Royal Society for the Protection of Birds | Lees A.C.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi | Clay R.P.,BirdLife International Americas Secretariat | And 3 more authors.
Diversity and Distributions

Aim We aimed to complete the first systematic assessment of extinction risk based on projected population declines derived from spatially explicit habitat projections for any taxonomic group at a regional scale, to use the outputs to ascertain the efficacy of an existing protected area network in covering species of conservation concern, and identify gaps therein. Location This study focused on Amazonia; an area of exceptional biodiversity, currently experiencing the highest absolute rate of forest loss globally but where the proportion of species assessed as 'threatened' on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List in the region is below global averages. Methods For all forest-dependent Amazonian bird species (814), we revised extinction risk estimates by combining data from a spatially explicit deforestation model with generation length estimates. By overlaying distribution maps for these revised threatened species, we identified crisis areas (areas of projected deforestation supporting the highest numbers of threatened species), refugia (areas projected to retain forest supporting the highest numbers of threatened species) and areas of high irreplaceability: short- and long-term priorities for new protected areas (PAs). Results The number of species qualifying as threatened rose substantially from 24 (3%) to 64-92 (8-11%). Areas of particular concern are the crisis and highly irreplaceable areas within the 'arc of deforestation' in the southern Brazilian Amazon states of Rondônia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Main conclusions Through a novel application of the IUCN Red List criteria, we present a spatially accurate rendering of the extinction risks of Amazonian birds. Important areas in the Amazon are not secure. We identify priorities for expansion of the PAs network and key locations where protection should be enforced. We recommend a collaborative approach employing our methods to repeat this process for other taxonomic groups. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Lesterhuis A.J.,BirdLife International Americas Secretariat | Clay R.P.,BirdLife International Americas Secretariat
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia

The doraditos (Pseudocolopteryx spp.) are a little-known group of small, yellow-breasted tyrants, distributed mainly in southern South America. All five species occur in Paraguay, including Pseudocolopteryx citreola, here documented in the country for the first time. The distribution and habitat preferences of the species in Paraguay are clarified, and well-documented records for the three rarest species P. acutipennis, citreola, and dinelliana are listed in full. Owing to the difficulty in distinguishing between the species, a field key is provided to assist observers in making correct field identifications. Source

Butchart S.H.M.,BirdLife International | Butchart S.H.M.,United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Center | Scharlemann J.P.W.,United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Center | Evans M.I.,BirdLife International | And 46 more authors.

Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of conservation efforts and now cover nearly 13% of the world's land surface, with the world's governments committed to expand this to 17%. However, as biodiversity continues to decline, the effectiveness of PAs in reducing the extinction risk of species remains largely untested. We analyzed PA coverage and trends in species' extinction risk at globally significant sites for conserving birds (10,993 Important Bird Areas, IBAs) and highly threatened vertebrates and conifers (588 Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, AZEs) (referred to collectively hereafter as 'important sites'). Species occurring in important sites with greater PA coverage experienced smaller increases in extinction risk over recent decades: the increase was half as large for bird species with&50% of the IBAs at which they occur completely covered by PAs, and a third lower for birds, mammals and amphibians restricted to protected AZEs (compared with unprotected or partially protected sites). Globally, half of the important sites for biodiversity conservation remain unprotected (49% of IBAs, 51% of AZEs). While PA coverage of important sites has increased over time, the proportion of PA area covering important sites, as opposed to less important land, has declined (by 0.45-1.14% annually since 1950 for IBAs and 0.79-1.49% annually for AZEs). Thus, while appropriately located PAs may slow the rate at which species are driven towards extinction, recent PA network expansion has under-represented important sites. We conclude that better targeted expansion of PA networks would help to improve biodiversity trends. © 2012 Butchart et al. Source

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