Warren B.H.,University of Reunion Island |
Strasberg D.,University of Reunion Island |
Bruggemann J.H.,University of Reunion Island |
Prys-Jones R.P.,Bird Group |
Thebaud C.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory
Cladistics | Year: 2010
A corollary of island biogeographical theory is that islands are largely colonized from their nearest mainland source. Despite Madagascar's extreme isolation from India and proximity to Africa, a high proportion of the biota of the Madagascar region has Asian affinities. This pattern has rarely been viewed as surprising, as it is consistent with Gondwanan vicariance. Molecular phylogenetic data provide strong support for such Asian affinities, but often not for their vicariant origin; most divergences between lineages in Asia and the Madagascar region post-date the separation of India and Madagascar considerably (up to 87 Myr), implying a high frequency of dispersal that mirrors colonization of the Hawaiian archipelago in distance. Indian Ocean bathymetry and the magnitude of recent sea-level lowstands support the repeated existence of sizeable islands across the western Indian Ocean, greatly reducing the isolation of Madagascar from Asia. We put forward predictions to test the role of this historical factor in the assembly of the regional biota.© The Willi Hennig Society 2009. © The Willi Hennig Society 2009.
Van Grouw H.,Bird Group
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club | Year: 2014
The white-speckled raven, a colour aberration of the Faroese Raven Corvus corax varius Brünnich, 1764, has occurred in the Faroe Islands since at least the Middle Ages. It has been described in many publications, and was a desired object for collectors of curiosities, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. Early in the 20th century (1902) the last white-speckled individual was seen in the Faeroes, leaving only about two dozen specimens in museum collections. Although often referred to as albino, the aberration causing the white feathers is not albinism but leucism. © 2014 British Ornithologists' Club.
Collar N.J.,BirdLife International |
Collar N.J.,Bird Group
Forktail | Year: 2011
Philippine bird taxonomy is relatively conservative and in need of re-examination. A number of well-marked subspecies were selected and subjected to a simple system of scoring (Tobias et al. 2010 Ibis 152: 724-746) that grades morphological and vocal differences between allopatric taxa (exceptional character 4, major 3, medium 2, minor 1; minimum score 7 for species status). This results in the recognition or confirmation of species status for (inverted commas where a new English name is proposed) 'Philippine Collared Dove' Streptopelia (bitorquatus) dusumieri, 'Philippine Green Pigeon' Treron (pompadora) axillaris and 'Buru Green Pigeon' T. (p.) aromatica, Luzon Racquet-tail Prioniturus montanus, Mindanao Racquet-tail P. waterstradti, Blue-winged Raquet-tail P. verticalis, Blue-headed Raquet-tail P. platenae, Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail P. flavicans, White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon (smyrnensis) gularis (with White-breasted Kingfisher applying to H. smyrnensis), 'Northern Silvery Kingfisher' Alcedo (argentata) flumenicola, 'Rufous-crowned Bee-eater' Merops (viridis) americanus, 'Spot-throated Flameback' Dinopium (javense) everetti, 'Luzon Flameback' Chrysocolaptes (lucidus) haematribon, 'Buff-spotted Flameback' C. (l.) lucidus, 'Yellow-faced Flameback' C. (l.) xanthocephalus, 'Red-headed Flameback' C. (l.) erythrocephalus, 'Javan Flameback' C. (l.) strictus, Greater Flameback C. (l.) guttacristatus, 'Sri Lankan Flameback' (Crimson-backed Flameback) Chrysocolaptes (l.) stricklandi, 'Southern Sooty Woodpecker' Mulleripicus (funebris) fuliginosus, Visayan Wattled Broadbill Eurylaimus (steerii) samarensis, White-lored Oriole Oriolus (steerii) albiloris, Tablas Drongo Dicrurus (hottentottus) menagei, Grand or Long-billed Rhabdornis Rhabdornis (inornatus) grandis, 'Visayan Rhabdornis' Rhabdornis (i.) rabori, and 'Visayan Shama' Copsychus (luzoniensis) superciliaris. However, Phapitreron leucotis nigrorum and P. l. brevirostris, P. amethystina maculipectus, Ceyx melanurus mindanensis, Orthotomus castaneiceps frontalis and Phylloscopus trivirgatus nigrorum do not quite make species status and require further vocal or other evidence; and Sulu or Black-billed Hanging Parrot Loriculus bonapartei and Camiguin Hanging Parrot L. camiguinensis are here considered to remain part of Philippine Hanging Parrot L. philippensis. © 2011 Oriental Bird Club.
Hume J.P.,Bird Group
Zootaxa | Year: 2011
The original diversity of the pigeons and doves (Columbidae: Nesoenas, Columba, Alectroenas) of the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues) has been poorly understood. Only two of perhaps as many as ten species are known from skin specimens, whereas the rest are known from old accounts and subfossil remains only. Most accounts, however, do not distinguish between species, so accurate identification is difficult to determine. The introduction of non-native pigeons has further exacerbated the problem and has led to erroneous interpretation. This paper provides a detailed re-analysis of the Mascarene columbid fauna (excluding the large, terrestrial "didines", the Dodo Raphus cucullatus and Solitaire Pezophaps solitaria), based partly on newly discovered subfossil remains. Key findings include: a new species of Alectroenas from Rodrigues and new species of Nesoenas and Columba from Mauritius; referral of the problematic species 'Columba' rodericana of Rodrigues to the genus Nesoenas; and documentation of new morphological and historical information concerning the extant Pink Pigeon Nesoenas mayeri and the extinct Mauritius Blue Pigeon Alectroenas nitidissima. The Columbidae comprises the largest avian radiation in the Mascarenes and probably colonised the islands at least four times from Madagascar and SE Asia during low sea level stands. Copyright © 2011. Magnolia Press.
Van Grouw H.,Bird Group
Australian Field Ornithology | Year: 2012
Colour aberrations in birds are still poorly known among ornithologists, and the terms used to describe such variations are often used inconsistently. Here, I provide further information on plumage aberrations described in Guay et al. (2012: Australian Field Ornithology 29, 23-30) and Frith & Murphy (2012: Australian Field Ornithology 29, 40-44), including a discussion of the 'brown' mutation.