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Bremen, Germany

Hunsberger M.,Gothenburg University | Pena P.,Gothenburg University | Lissner L.,Gothenburg University | Grafstrom L.,Grafstroms Materials and Medicin HB | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day's school lunch reported by 6-8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child's intake of the previous day's lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children's recalls and teachers' records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Findings. Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6-8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson's correlations r=0.92, p<0.001 and r=0.83, p<0.001 respectively). Bland-Altman plots showed strong agreement between child-reported and weighed intakes but confirmed systematic differences between teacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Conclusions: Children 6-8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake. Parents were not able to report on their children's school lunches consumed on the previous day. © 2013 Hunsberger et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Olafsdottir S.,Gothenburg University | Eiben G.,Gothenburg University | Prell H.,Gothenburg University | Hense S.,BIPS GmbH | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: This study investigated the associations between children's screen habits and their consumption of sweetened beverages. Because parents might be disposed to regulate their child's screen and dietary habits in a similar direction, our specific aim was to examine whether these associations were independent of parental norms. Methods: In the Swedish sample of the European Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study, parents filled in questionnaires about their 2 to 9-year-old children's (n = 1,733) lifestyle and diets. Results: Associations between screen habits and sweetened beverage consumption were found independent of parental norms regarding sweetened beverages. A longitudinal analysis revealed that sweetened beverage consumption at 2-year follow-up was predicted by exposure to commercial TV at baseline (OR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1-1.9). Cross-sectional analysis showed that the likelihood of consuming sweetened beverages at least 1-3 times per week increased for each hour/day watching television (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2-1.9), and for being exposed to commercials (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.3-2.1). TV viewing time and commercial exposure contributed to the associations independently of each other. Conclusions: The results strengthen the assumption that it is possible to influence children's dietary habits through their TV habits. © 2013 Swiss School of Public Health. Source


Erdmann F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Kaatsch P.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Zeeb H.,BIPS GmbH | Roman E.,University of York | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background Sex, age, immunophenotype and white blood cell count at diagnosis are well accepted predictors of survival from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children. Less is known about the relationship between socio-economic determinants and survival from paediatric ALL, studied here for the first time in German children. Methods ALL cases were diagnosed between 1992 and 1994 and their parents interviewed during a previous nationwide case-control study. Children were followed-up for 10 years after diagnosis by the German Childhood Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards models estimating hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated to assess the impact of selected socio-demographic characteristics on overall and event-free survival. Results Overall survival was 82.5%, with a higher proportion of girls than boys surviving (85% versus 81%). We found a non-linear relationship between age at diagnosis and survival, with poorer survival in infants and children aged >5 years. There was no association between socio-economic factors and survival or risk of relapse. For five levels of increasing family income, all HRs were close to one. No relationship was seen with parental educational level. Conclusion Socio-economic determinants did not affect ALL survival in West German children, in contrast to studies from some other countries. Dissimilarities in social welfare systems, including access to health care, lifestyle and differences in treatment may contribute to these differences in findings. Our observation of no social inequalities in paediatric ALL survival is reassuring, but needs continued monitoring to assess the potential impact of evolvement of treatment options and changes in paediatric health service. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Strohle A.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Wolters M.,BIPS GmbH | Hahn A.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten | Year: 2013

Pregnant women are at greater risk of an insufficient vitamin and mineral supply. Based on hemodynamic, endocrine and metabolic changes due to pregnancy, the body weight and blood volume increase. These changes result in an increased requirement of most vitamins and minerals while the energy requirement increases by about 10 %. Besides iodine (recommended intake as supplement 150 μg/d), iron (recommended intake 30-40 mg/d), vitamin D (recommended intake as supplement 20-50 μg/d), and docosahexaenoic acid (recommended intake 200 mg/d), folic acid is one of the critical micronutrients during pregnancy. Food folate and synthetic folic acid differ in their bioavailability. About 50 % of the food folate is absorbed whereas almost 100 % of folic acid from supplements is bioavailable. The contents are thus indicated as folate equivalents. In the form of THF, folic acid functions as coenzyme for the transfer of C1 units in the metabolism of amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Folic acid (isolated or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) reduces the total risk for neural tube defects by 72 %. For primary prevention it is recommended that all women who are planning to become pregnant take 400-800 μg synthetic folic acid along with a diet rich in folate. The additional intake should be continued at least until the end of the first trimester. For secondary prevention of neural tube defects an intake of 4 mg/d is recommended. Source


Strohle A.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Wolters M.,BIPS GmbH | Hahn A.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten | Year: 2013

Ageing processes are associated with physiological changes, e. g. a reduction of metabolically active body mass and an impaired hunger-satiety regulation, which - combined with chronic diseases and psychosocial problems - significantly increase the risk for malnutrition. However, considering their nutrition and health status elderly people are a very heterogeneous group. The nutrition situation of "young" seniors does generally not differ from the situation of working-age adults while institutionalized elderly people and those in need of care often show signs of a global malnutrition. The critical nutrients in the nutrition of the elderly particularly include vitamin B12 and D. Six percent of all elderly have a manifest and 10 to 30 % a functional vitamin B12 deficiency. The main cause is vitamin B12 malabsorption resulting from a type B atrophic gastritis. The functional vitamin B12 deficiency and the associated hyperhomocysteinemia are risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases and accelerate bone loss. With increasing age the vitamin D status is deteriorating. About 50 % of the elderly living in private households is deficient in vitamin D; in geriatrics vitamin D deficiency is more the rule than an exception. This is caused by a reduced endogenous biosynthesis, low UVB exposure and a diet low in vitamin D. A vitamin D deficiency increases the risk for falls and fractures as well as the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Also the overall mortality is increased. Source

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