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Soriani M.,Novartis | Petit P.,BioXtal Structural Biology Unit | Grifantini R.,Novartis | Grifantini R.,Externautics | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

We present an interdisciplinary approach that, by incorporating a range of experimental and computational techniques, allows the identification and characterization of functional/immunogenic domains. This approach has been applied to ArtJ, an arginine-binding protein whose orthologs in Chlamydiae trachomatis (CT ArtJ) and pneumoniae (CPn ArtJ) are shown to have different immunogenic properties despite a high sequence similarity (60% identity). We have solved the crystallographic structures of CT ArtJ and CPn ArtJ, which are found to display a type II transporter fold organized in two α-β domains with the arginine-binding region at their interface. Although ArtJ is considered to belong to the periplasm, we found that both domains contain regions exposed on the bacterial surface. Moreover, we show that recombinant ArtJ binds to epithelial cells in vitro, suggesting a role for ArtJ in host-cell adhesion during Chlamydia infection. Experimental epitope mapping and computational analysis of physicochemical determinants of antibody recognition revealed that immunogenic epitopes reside mainly in the terminal (D1) domain of both CPn and CT ArtJ, whereas the surface properties of the respective binding-prone regions appear sufficiently different to assume divergent immunogenic behavior. Neutralization assays revealed that sera raised against CPn ArtJ D1 partially reduce both CPn and CT infectivity in vitro, suggesting that functional antibodies directed against this domain may potentially impair chlamydial infectivity. These findings suggest that the approach presented here, combining functional and structure-based analyses of evolutionary-related antigens can be a valuable tool for the identification of cross-species immunogenic epitopes for vaccine development. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Piguel N.H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Piguel N.H.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Fievre S.,Institut Universitaire de France | Fievre S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 38 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2014

The appropriate trafficking of glutamate receptors to synapses is crucial for basic synaptic function and synaptic plasticity. It is now accepted that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) internalize and are recycled at the plasma membrane but also exchange between synaptic and extrasynaptic pools; these NMDAR properties are also key to governing synaptic plasticity. Scribble1 is a large PDZ protein required for synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Herein, we show that the level of Scribble1 is regulated in an activity-dependent manner and that Scribble1 controls the number of NMDARs at the plasma membrane. Notably, Scribble1 prevents GluN2A subunits from undergoing lysosomal trafficking and degradation by increasing their recycling to the plasma membrane following NMDAR activation. Finally, we show that a specific YxxR motif on Scribble1 controls these mechanisms through a direct interaction with AP2. Altogether, our findings define a molecular mechanism to control the levels of synaptic NMDARs via Scribble1 complex signaling. © 2014 The Authors.

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