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Mack N.A.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | Porter A.P.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | Whalley H.J.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | Schwarz J.P.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Although Rac and its activator Tiam1 are known to stimulate cell-cell adhesion, the mechanisms regulating their activity in cell-cell junction formation are poorly understood. Here, we identify β2-syntrophin as a Tiam1 interactor required for optimal cell-cell adhesion. We show that during tight-junction (TJ) assembly β2-syntrophin promotes Tiam1-Rac activity, in contrast to the function of the apical determinant Par-3 whose inhibition of Tiam1-Rac activity is necessary for TJ assembly. We further demonstrate that β2-syntrophin localizes more basally than Par-3 at cell-cell junctions, thus generating an apicobasal Rac activity gradient at developing cell-cell junctions. Targeting active Rac to TJs shows that this gradient is required for optimal TJ assembly and apical lumen formation. Consistently, β2-syntrophin depletion perturbs Tiam1 and Rac localization at cell-cell junctions and causes defects in apical lumen formation. We conclude that β2-syntrophin and Par-3 fine-tune Rac activity along cell-cell junctions controlling TJ assembly and the establishment of apicobasal polarity. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Castillo-Lluva S.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | Tatham M.H.,University of Dundee | Jones R.C.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Jones R.C.,Bioworks Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2010

The Rho-like GTPase, Rac1, induces cytoskeletal rearrangements required for cell migration. Rac activation is regulated through a number of mechanisms, including control of nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, regulation of subcellular localization or modulation of protein-expression levels. Here, we identify that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3-ligase, PIAS3, interacts with Rac1 and is required for increased Rac activation and optimal cell migration in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signalling. We demonstrate that Rac1 can be conjugated to SUMO-1 in response to hepatocyte growth factor treatment and that SUMOylation is enhanced by PIAS3. Furthermore, we identify non-consensus sites within the polybasic region of Rac1 as the main location for SUMO conjugation. We demonstrate that PIAS3-mediated SUMOylation of Rac1 controls the levels of Rac1-GTP and the ability of Rac1 to stimulate lamellipodia, cell migration and invasion. The finding that a Ras superfamily member can be SUMOylated provides an insight into the regulation of these critical mediators of cell behaviour. Our data reveal a role for SUMO in the regulation of cell migration and invasion. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Khan Z.,University of Chicago | Ford M.J.,Bioworks Inc. | Cusanovich D.A.,University of Chicago | Mitrano A.,University of Chicago | And 4 more authors.
Science | Year: 2013

Changes in gene regulation have likely played an important role in the evolution of primates. Differences in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels across primates have often been documented; however, it is not yet known to what extent measurements of divergence in mRNA levels reflect divergence in protein expression levels, which are probably more important in determining phenotypic differences. We used high-resolution, quantitative mass spectrometry to collect protein expression measurements from human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque lymphoblastoid cell lines and compared them to transcript expression data from the same samples. We found dozens of genes with significant expression differences between species at the mRNA level yet little or no difference in protein expression. Overall, our data suggest that protein expression levels evolve under stronger evolutionary constraint than mRNA levels.

Battle A.,Stanford University | Battle A.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Battle A.,Johns Hopkins University | Khan Z.,University of Chicago | And 7 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015

The phenotypic consequences of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) are presumably due to their effects on protein expression levels. Yet the impact of genetic variation, including eQTLs, on protein levels remains poorly understood. To address this, we mapped genetic variants that are associated with eQTLs, ribosome occupancy (rQTLs), or protein abundance (pQTLs). We found that most QTLs are associated with transcript expression levels, with consequent effects on ribosome and protein levels. However, eQTLs tend to have significantly reduced effect sizes on protein levels, which suggests that their potential impact on downstream phenotypes is often attenuated or buffered. Additionally, we identified a class of cis QTLs that affect protein abundance with little or no effect on messenger RNA or ribosome levels, which suggests that they may arise from differences in posttranslational regulation.

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 330.30K | Year: 2012

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

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