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Palmira, Colombia

Galluzzi G.,Bioversity International | Eyzaguirre P.,Third University of Rome | Negri V.,University of Perugia
Biodiversity and Conservation

Over the last two decades, the importance of conserving genetic resources has received increasing attention. In this context the role of home gardens as repositories of biological diversity has been acknowledged but still a comprehensive, interdisciplinary investigation of their agro-biodiversity is lacking. Home gardens, whether found in rural or urban areas, are characterized by a structural complexity and multifunctionality which enables the provision of different benefits to ecosystems and people. Studies carried out in various countries demonstrate that high levels of inter- and intra-specific plant genetic diversity, especially in terms of traditional crop varieties and landraces, are preserved in home gardens. Families engage in food production for subsistence or small-scale marketing and the variety of crops and wild plants provides nutritional benefits. At the same time, home gardens are important social and cultural spaces where knowledge related to agricultural practices is transmitted and through which households may improve their income and livelihoods. The present article summarizes available literature on the biological and cultural significance of agro-biodiversity in home gardens. It discusses future constraints and opportunities in home garden research, in the prospect of defining and promoting their role in conservation of agricultural biodiversity and cultural heritage. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Amar M.H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Amar M.H.,Desert Research Center | Biswas M.K.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Bioversity International | Guo W.-W.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Scientia Horticulturae

The present study was to assess informativeness and efficiency of three different molecular markers for genetic diversity among 24 Citrus and its relative species. Sixty one SSR, 33 SRAP and 24 CAPS-SNP markers were used to evaluate the level of polymorphism and discriminating capacity. A total of 596, 656 and 135 polymorphic amplicons were observed in SSR, SRAP and CAPS-SNP markers with average polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.97, 0.98 and 0.89, respectively. High levels of polymorphism were recorded for SSR and SRAP compared with CAPS-SNP markers. The highest correlations (r= 0.930) were obtained between SSR and SRAP markers, whereas SSR and CAPS-SNP were poorly correlated (r= 0.833). Cluster analysis was performed to construct dendrograms using UPGMA. And the dendrogram from SSR data was most congruent with the general dendrogram. These findings provide basis for future efficient use of these molecular markers in the genetic analysis of Citrus and its relatives. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

It is well known that ethnobotanical knowledge can vary significantly among societies. However, it often remains difficult to fully capture the factors underlying differences in perceptions of usefulness. A quantitative ethnobotanical study was conducted in Indigenous Territory and National Park Isiboro-Sécure (TIPNIS), Bolivia, to compare the plant use knowledge and management of the Yuracarés and Trinitarios, two indigenous groups that share the same living environment. Results show that the Trinitarios have higher knowledge of plants from anthropogenic environments and maintain a significantly larger pharmacopoeia than the Yuracarés. By contrast, the Yuracarés are more knowledgeable of wild flora and particularly excel in their knowledge of wild food plants. I relate these differences to: (1) cultural heritage, customs and practices; (2) ethnomedicinal system; (3) (historical) mode of subsistence; (4) provenance; (5) history of contact with Western society; and (6) modernization and social position. I argue that although contemporary Yuracarés are semi-sedentary, their plant use knowledge and management reflect their previous semi-nomadic foraging lifestyle. Similarly, Trinitarios' current plant use knowledge and management reflects their legacy of having developed one of the most advanced pre-Colombian agricultural societies in the tree savannahs of Moxos. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Purpose: Capacity development for agricultural research and development is missing an opportunity. Initiatives tend to focus on developing capacity of individuals and even when the ultimate aim is social change leave the transformation of individual into social learning largely to chance. I use the lens of social learning systems, particularly concepts from Community of Practice theory, to explore how that theory can provide practical insights into transforming individual into social learning and the design considerations that would support this.Design/methodology/approach: Using as a case study a professional development programme, African Women in Agricultural Research and Development (AWARD), I conducted a use-oriented systemic inquiry among 26 AWARD participants, with myself as informed investigator within the system of inquiry. Data from interviews and questionnaires were subjected to qualitative analysis using analytic induction with sensitizing concepts from Community of Practice theory.Practical implications: I identify strengths and challenges, and provide five design considerations that might enable the individuals participating in a capacity development programme to continue to engage after the programme ends and self-organize for concerted action.Originality/value: The originality of this research article is the use of the three central Community of Practice concepts of domain, community and practice as analytical tools for understanding individual and social learning among the alumni of a professional capacity development programme. This has value for designers of capacity development initiatives. © 2013 Wageningen University. Source

Krishna V.V.,University of Gottingen | Drucker A.G.,Bioversity International | Pascual U.,University of Cambridge | Pascual U.,Basque Center for Climate Change | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Economics

This paper examines the role of direct compensation payments for agrobiodiversity conservation, using minor millet landraces in India as an example. The cost of farmer participation in a hypothetical 'payments for agrobiodiversity conservation services' (PACS) scheme is estimated using a stated preference valuation approach. Significant inter-crop and inter-varietal differences are observed with respect to consumption values, upon which the compensation demanded by farm households is shown to primarily depend. Drawing on a categorisation of consumption values and farmer preferences, the paper points to the importance of simultaneously considering a range of potential interventions in order to conserve a priority portfolio of agrobiodiverse resources in predominantly subsistence-based agricultural systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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