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Abdulkareem T.A.,University of Baghdad | Al-Sharifi S.A.,University of Baghdad | Eidan S.M.,University of Baghdad | Sasser R.G.,Biotracking, Llc
Pakistan Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates) and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight) traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation). Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 concentrate-supplemented buffaloes (Flushing) and 100 control ones. Additionally, pregnant buffaloes were also divided into 528 concentratesupplemented buffaloes (Steaming up) and 100 controls. Each buffalo within the flushing and steaming up groups were fed daily on 7 Kg of concentrate diet (13% crude protein and 1.70 Mcal of net energy) for 60 days. The control buffaloes were nourished only on low-quality roughages of the area and wheat bran. Higher estrus (+15%, P<0.01), pregnancy (+23.8%, P<0.05) and calving rates (+30.8%, P<0.01) were observed in concentrate-supplemented buffaloes as compared with controls. An obvious increase in (P<0.05) calving rate (+14.7%), daily milk yield (+44.8%) and calf birth weight (+25.6%) were noted in steaming up buffaloes in comparison with control buffaloes. Results indicated that improvement in feeding schedule of Iraqi buffaloes during pre-mating and late gestation periods enhanced the reproductive performance and increased milk production of subsequent lactation and calf birth weight. These improvements increased owner income ($174=209,000 Iraqi dinar /buffalo) from the sale of meat and milk. © 2011 PVJ.


Thompson I.M.,University of Florida | Tao S.,University of Florida | Branen J.,Biotracking, Llc | Ealy A.D.,University of Florida | Dahl G.E.,University of Florida
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

Environmental factors, such as photoperiod and heat stress, can be manipulated during the dry period to influence health, productivity, and reproductive performance of dairy cows in their subsequent lactation. The impacts of photoperiod and heat stress on subsequent lactation are related to alterations in prolactin (PRL) signaling and may affect the expression of pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB). Additionally, exposure of cows to heat stress during the dry period decreases gestation length; however, the mechanism involved in this process is unknown. The objective of these experiments was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors (i.e., heat stress and photoperiod) during late gestation (i.e., dry period) on PSPB concentrations in plasma of dairy cows. In Exp. 1, cows were dried off in the summer months approximately 46 d before expected calving and assigned randomly to heat stress (HT; n = 30) or cooling (CL; n = 30) treatment. Cooling cows were housed with sprinklers, fans, and shade, whereas HT cows were provided only shade. In Exp. 2, cows were dried off at approximately 60 d before expected calving in summer/fall months and randomly assigned to 3 treatments: long day photoperiod (LDPP: 16L:8D; n = 15), short day photoperiod (SDPP: 8L:16D; n = 14) and SDPP+PRL implant (12 mg/d of PRL at 28 d or 16 mg/d of PRL at 39 d; n = 11). In both experiments, plasma samples were collected at dry off and at -32, -18, -7, -3 and 0 d relative to calving. In Exp. 1, greater concentrations of PSPB were detected in plasma of CL versus HT cows (388.3 ± 24.7 vs. 287.4 ± 23.8 ng/mL; P < 0.01). Concentrations of PSPB did not differ between -46 to -18 d before calving (66.0 ng/mL). However, PSPB concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for CL cows at d -7 (534.7 > 357.2 ng/mL), -3 (807.2 > 572.2 ng/mL) and 0 (800.8 > 563.5 ng/mL) relative to calving. Additionally, HT cows in Exp. 1 had increased PRL plasma concentrations compared with CL cows (21.01 ± 1.6 vs. 13.78 ± 1.6 ng/ mL). In Exp. 2, no differences were detected in plasma concentrations of PSPB (ng/mL) among LDPP, SDPP, or SDPP+PRL groups on d -60 (41.5), -32 (51.7), -18 (58.5), -7 (532.9), -3 (838.2), and 0 (729.4) relative to parturition. Photoperiodic PRL concentrations were 10.81, 7.84, and 4.22 ng/mL for LDPP, SDPP+ PRL, and SDPP, respectively. Results indicate that HT alters PSPB concentrations in late pregnancy, suggesting that placental activity is altered in cows exposed to excessive elevated temperatures around the time of calving. However, the mechanism involved likely is not associated with changes in PRL secretion. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Ribeiro E.S.,University of Florida | Bruno R.G.S.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Farias A.M.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Hernandez-Rivera J.A.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2014

Objectives were to evaluate the effects of administering either one or two low doses of slow-release recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) on hormone concentrations, conceptus development, and fertility in dairy cows. Cows from two farms were detected in estrus on or after 50 days postpartum (n1/4 1483), inseminated, and enrolled in the study (Day 0). Within farm, cows were blocked by parity and assigned randomly to receive a single placebo injection at insemination (control), a single injection with 325 mg of bST at insemination (S-bST), or two injections with 325 mg of bST administered on Days 0 and 14 (T-bST). From a subset of cows, blood was collected twice weekly from Day 0 to 42 for determination of hormone concentrations and on Day 19 for isolation of leucocytes and analysis of transcript abundance of selected interferon-stimulated genes. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Days 31 and 66, and ultrasonographic morphometry of the conceptus was performed on Days 34 and 48 in a subset of cows. Cows that received T-bST had increased plasma concentrations of GH and IGF1 for 4 wk, increased mRNA expression of ISG15 and RTP4 in leukocytes, earlier rise in the pregnancy-specific protein B in plasma of pregnant cows, increased conceptus size, and enhanced fertility. Cows that received S-bST had increased concentrations of GH and IGF1 for only 2 wk and it was insufficient to alter conceptus development and fertility. In conclusion, supplementation with low doses of bST during the pre- and peri-implantation periods enhanced conceptus development, reduced embryonic losses, and improved fertility in dairy cows. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.


Patent
Biotracking, Llc | Date: 2013-09-23

Testing systems and methods are disclosed for detecting a pregnancy marker of an animal. A test kit may include a first standard with a first concentration of the marker, a second standard with a second concentration of the marker lower than the first concentration, and at least three test surfaces coated with a biomolecular recognition element selected to bind with the marker. The test may also include a reagent solution with a conjugated biomolecular recognition element that binds with the marker, and a visual indicator that produces a visually detectable change when reacting with the conjugated biomolecular recognition element bound to each test surface. A detectable change generated by the marker from the sample with an intensity greater than the first concentration yields a pregnant result, lower than the second concentration yields a not pregnant result, and between the first and second concentrations yields a retest result.


Trademark
Biotracking, Llc | Date: 2013-11-02

Genetic identity tests comprised of reagents. Marking ink for animals. Animal semen; Animal semen for artificial insemination; In vitro gender prediction test kit; In-vitro ovulation prediction test kit for home use; Medicated animal feed; Micro-nutrient animal feed; Ovulation test kits; Pregnancy test kits for home use; Probiotic animal feed; Protein supplements for animals; Veterinary vaccines for Livestock; Vitamins and dietary food supplements for animals. Ultrasonic instrumentation for testing machines; Ultrasound inspection devices for non-medical, non-destructive testing. Blood testing apparatus; Blood testing apparatus, namely, blood collecting tubes; Blood testing apparatus, namely, blood sampling tubes; Home urine collection kit consisting of test tubes, pipette, and self-mailer used to determine a persons nutraceutical needs; Veterinary apparatus, namely, flexible stainless steel probe for delivery of high volume liquids directly to the rumen of large animals; Veterinary imaging products, namely, digital video camera connected to a tapered probe useful in viewing ear canals or other cavities of animals for diagnosis and treatment; Veterinary protective boots for animals after a veterinary procedure. Animal embryos; Live animals; Live animals, namely, all livestock. Testing, inspection or research on agriculture, livestock breeding or fisheries. Animal breeding; Breeding and stud services for Livestock; Breeding of livestock for others, namely, seedstock producers; Breeding services for Livestock; Providing animal breeding information in the field of wildlife preservation; Stud and breeding services for Livestock.


Trademark
Biotracking, Llc | Date: 2013-11-03

Livestock.


Trademark
Biotracking, Llc | Date: 2014-03-14

Pregnancy test kits; Pregnancy test kits for animals; Pregnancy test kits for ruminant animals. Pregnancy testing services; Pregnancy testing services for animals; Pregnancy testing services for ruminant animals.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.71K | Year: 2011

Maintaining the expected quality and safety of food products is often difficult due to potential chemical and biological contamination. Of particular concern is the threat of food poisoning. Over 40 different foodborne microbial pathogens cause an estimated 30 million cases of human illness each year costing >$12 billion annually. Over the last 20 years, food-borne diseases caused by microbes have created increasingly significant concerns in the national political agenda and gained media attention. In addition to food-borne diseases, the use of pathogenic microorganisms as weapons of mass destruction remains a threat throughout the world. Agencies like, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Homeland Security must seek refined protocols for the rapid characterization and identification of pathogenic bacteria. Although, classical microbiological tests are available for detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria in samples, they usually involve a number of analytical steps of long duration and must be conducted by highly qualified scientific personnel. Therefore, new and faster techniques based on molecular biology principles have emerged during the last 10 years to supplement traditional methodology. This project will assess the feasibility to develop multi-layered nanoparticles that can be integrated into a Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) system for simple, accurate and sensitive detection of foodborne pathogens. Successful completion of this project will provide a new avenue for rapid bacterial detection along with a viable product to be developed for food safety markets. The advantageous characteristics of nanomaterials have made them an important component in a number emerging technologies. There are significant opportunities for the use of nano-material biosensors for food product and environmental monitoring, among many other offshoot applications. Therefore, development, of nanomaterial-based SERS biosensors has a high probability of usefulness. This Phase I grant is designed to build on preliminary research to prove the concept that SERS active nanoparticles can be designed and manufactured that can be directly used in a combinatorial approach to isolate and concentrate pathogenic microorganisms from food products as well as serve to enhance and develop a unique specific signal in a SERS optical biosensor. Both the particles and the optical method used to detect microorganisms have potential for commercialization.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 154.94K | Year: 2011

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The long-term commercial objective of this project is to develop a rapid (minutes), sensitive, inexpensive nanospring-based (NS) biological platform that does not require expensive, complex instrumentation for obtainingresults due to the highly active biological surface area in a small two-dimensional footprint. Current multiplex ELISA analysis is limited to antigen- or antibody-coated beads which require laser detection systems in microfluidic channels, or electrochemilumiscent-based assays with high equipment costs and complex electronic chip antibody-capture platforms. The long-term specific aims of this project are to: 1) to determine loading capacity and biological activity of NS bound antibodies. (Phase I); 2) evaluate both antigen-down and capture (sandwich) formats based on the protocols developed in Phase I; 3) develop a multiplex ELISA format that is capable of performing rapid, simultaneous analyses on multiple samples; 4) evaluate the potential of the nanospring platform for miniaturization of the assay; 5) determine the ability of nanosprings to enhance the activity of a wide variety of other biological agents. The ability to rapidly perform multiplex ELISA assays has relevance from several different perspectives. Beyond the ability to assay for several different biomarkers which are used in disease diagnosis, monitoring disease progression or treatment procedures in humans, multiplex assays have a demonstrated need in bacterial and viral disease detection and diagnosis in veterinary medicine, and drug and toxin screening. The ability to attach other bioreactive molecules onto NS has utility in the development of smaller and more efficient bioreactors for drug and pharmaceutical production, wasterwater treatment, and tissue growth in cell culture. For Phase I we propose to use silica nanosprings as the solid- phase for the coating of capture antibodies or antigens, and to determine the maximum capacity of antibody and antigen binding, and maximum activity of these molecules as compared to currently available materials used in standard ELISA assays (i.e microtiter plates). For these studies, NS will be deposited on a support medium of glass microbeads. We will investigate both the density of nanospring depositionas a function of activity of the coated proteins. NS offer a distinct advantage over these other materials due to the dramatic increase in the surface area available for biological materials, the wide variety of materials available for coating and the ease at which these materials can be coated, the low cost of using NS. As a result of the large surface area available for binding, we anticipate that the sensitivity of the assay can be increased while reducing the footprint of the assay from a standard 96-well format to a 384- or 1536-well or array format. This miniaturization will effectively reduce the volume of sample and reagents needed thus reducing the time of the assay from hours to minutes. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: A greater available surface area afforded by nanosprings (250 fold) will facilitate the binding of multiple capture proteins and/or antibodies, allowing for a single assay test-well to be used in the detection of multiple chemical compounds (multiplex immunoassay). Tests may be completed in a shorter time (minutes rather than hours), on a smaller test platform and on the site of examination and will be invaluable in a variety of health-related applications: viral detection and vaccine development; multiple detection of pro-inflamatory cytokines in multi- symptomatic diseases (e.g. reflex sympathetic dystrophy); the detection of angiogenic cytokines in human tumor tissue (allowing for the selection of specific chemotherapeutic drugs); detection and discrimination of hepatitis B and C,and HIV type-1 viruses (common transfusion-transmitted pathogens); combined detection of Chlamydia. trachomatis and human papillomaviruses (two asymptomatic, sexually transmitted diseases); to evaluate the changes in specific biomarkers as a predictive indicator of positive-outcome chemotherapy; or to detect food pathogens and toxins prior to distribution of contaminated products, to name a few.


Patent
Biotracking, Llc | Date: 2011-03-01

Testing systems and methods are disclosed for detecting a pregnancy marker of an animal. A test kit may include a first standard with a first concentration of the marker, a second standard with a second concentration of the marker lower than the first concentration, and at least three test surfaces coated with a biomolecular recognition element selected to bind with the marker. The test may also include a reagent solution with a conjugated biomolecular recognition element that binds with the marker, and a visual indicator that produces a visually detectable change when reacting with the conjugated biomolecular recognition element bound to each test surface. A detectable change generated by the marker from the sample with an intensity greater than the first concentration yields a pregnant result, lower than the second concentration yields a not pregnant result, and between the first and second concentrations yields a retest result.

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