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Dragoni I.,University of Milan | Balzaretti C.,University of Milan | Rossini S.,Biotrack | Rossi L.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2011

Lysozyme is used in cheese manufacture in order to prevent blowing in cheeses caused by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Being an egg derivative, the presence of lysozyme must be included on the label for residual allergenic risk (2003/89/CE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of lysozyme on proteic profiles of typical Italian cheeses such as Grana Padano through surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The proteolytic activity of ripening (from 0 to 24 months), confirmed by a decrease in casein, did not influence the intensity of lysozyme peaks. Furthermore, ripened Grana Padano cheese could be differentiated on mass profiling from immature Grana Padano by the presence of particular signals that are probably related to casein proteolysis. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Genini S.,Parco Tecnologico Padano CERSA | Genini S.,University of Pennsylvania | Paternoster T.,Research and Innovation Center | Paternoster T.,Sandoz Industrial Products S.p.A. | And 6 more authors.
Proteome Science | Year: 2012

Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant swine diseases worldwide. Despite its relevance, serum biomarkers associated with early-onset viral infection, when clinical signs are not detectable and the disease is characterized by a weak anti-viral response and persistent infection, have not yet been identified. Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) is a reproducible, accurate, and simple method for the identification of biomarker proteins related to disease in serum. This work describes the SELDI-TOF MS analyses of sera of 60 PRRSV-positive and 60 PRRSV-negative, as measured by PCR, asymptomatic Large White piglets at weaning. Sera with comparable and low content of hemoglobin (< 4.52 μg/mL) were fractionated in 6 different fractions by anion-exchange chromatography and protein profiles in the mass range 1-200 kDa were obtained with the CM10, IMAC30, and H50 surfaces.Results: A total of 200 significant peaks (p < 0.05) were identified in the initial discovery phase of the study and 47 of them were confirmed in the validation phase. The majority of peaks (42) were up-regulated in PRRSV-positive piglets, while 5 were down-regulated. A panel of 14 discriminatory peaks identified in fraction 1 (pH = 9), on the surface CM10, and acquired at low focus mass provided a serum protein profile diagnostic pattern that enabled to discriminate between PRRSV-positive and -negative piglets with a sensitivity and specificity of 77% and 73%, respectively.Conclusions: SELDI-TOF MS profiling of sera from PRRSV-positive and PRRSV-negative asymptomatic piglets provided a proteomic signature with large scale diagnostic potential for early identification of PRRSV infection in weaning piglets. Furthermore, SELDI-TOF protein markers represent a refined phenotype of PRRSV infection that might be useful for whole genome association studies. © 2012 Genini et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bernardo C.S.S.,Sao Paulo State University | Cresswell B.,Biotrack | Lloyd H.,Northumbria University | Azeredo R.,Crax Brazil | Simpson J.,Crax Brazil
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2011

Long-term monitoring of reintroduced individuals is a central component of many endangered species reintroduction programs. Radio-telemetry techniques are rarely used to monitor reintroduced captive-bred Cracids and few data exist regarding possible adverse effects of radio-tagging Cracids. In this study, we identify an appropriate radio transmitter design and develop a suitable attachment method that minimizes anthropogenic influence and enables long-term, post-release monitoring (2-3 years) of reintroduced captive-bred Red-billed Curassows in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. We also review studies about the effects of different VHF radio transmitter models on survival, reproduction, behavior, and physiology of Galliformes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Uzal A.,Bournemouth University | Uzal A.,University of Saskatchewan | Walls S.,Biotrack | Stillman R.A.,Bournemouth University | Diaz A.,Bournemouth University
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2013

Large populations of sika deer occur in lowland heath, woodland, and grassland mosaics in southern England. Previous studies have focused on understanding single factors potentially affecting distribution and habitat selection of sika deer rather than considering simultaneously effects of landscape configuration and human disturbance on their distribution and habitat selection. This study measured effects of habitat availability, landscape structure, and human disturbance on where sika deer placed their home ranges and habitat selection within those ranges. Two main hypotheses were tested: (1) habitat selection differs according to landscape structure and habitat availability at both landscape and home range scales and (2) distribution of sources of human disturbance within the home range of deer affects their distribution. Results from radiotracking 31 females provided support for the first hypothesis and partial support for the second. Habitat selection at the landscape and home range scales differed between landscapes with different habitat structure and availability and was driven by distribution and availability of food and cover and a perceived risk linked to disturbance. Furthermore, deer selected open areas close to cover and this selection was stronger with presence of human disturbance, although results differed between study areas with different habitat distribution and level of disturbance. The study highlights the importance for managing deer of a balance between grazing and cover resources and the distribution of human disturbance. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 581.79K | Year: 2010

The Greenland Ice Sheet is the main reservoir of ice in the northern hemisphere capable of affecting sea level in the 21st Century. Measurements of the elevation of the ice sheet surface from aircraft now provide a much better picture of the whether the ice sheet is graining or losing mass. However, until there is a better understanding of how ice flows from the ice sheet interior to the ocean, models that aim to predict the response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to climate change and the impact on sea level are unlikely to produce accurate estimates. One of the least poorly understood aspects of ice flow is how meltwater lubrication at the ice sheet sole might affect the rate of ice discharge to the ocean. Recent research has shown that the input of surface meltwater to the ice sheet bed in summer causes considerable ice speed up. Exactly how meltwater flows at the bed (does it flow in discrete channels or does it spread out and flow in a more diffuse manner?) is crucial to understanding how the ice sheet might respond to increased melt inputs in a warming climate. Currently, little is known about basal meltwater routing because the vast amounts of meltwater prevent the use of traditional tracing techniques (e.g. dye tracing). This project aims to apply novel tracing methods which will survive large scale dilution, and which can be injected to holes (moulins) on the glacier surface and detected when the water emerges at the ice sheet front. Some of these techniques have been using widely in oceanography to trace currents across ocean basins. Our tracer experiments will provide new information regarding characteristics of meltwater flow paths and their temporal/spatial variations at the bed of the ice sheet and provide detailed measurements (e.g. pressure) of along-flow path characteristics. Comparison of our tracer results (e.g. water flow speeds, pressure conditions in channels) with ice velocity data from the same glacier will help identify linkages between meltwater routing and ice flow mechanisms, and will generate a unique dataset for future numerical modelling studies aimed at quantifying the future contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet to global sea level rise.level rise.

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