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Cheongwon, South Korea

Qian Y.R.,Yanbian University | Lee M.-J.,Chonnam National University | Lee M.-J.,Biotoxtech Co. | Hwang S.,Chonnam National University | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known anti-epileptic and mood stabilizing drug. A growing number of reports demonstrate that VPA is neuroprotective against various insults. Despite intensive efforts to develop new therapeutics for stroke over the past two decades, all treatments have thus far failed to show clinical effect because of treatment-limiting side effects of the drugs. Therefore, a safety-validated drug like VPA would be an attractive candidate if it has neuroprotective effects against ischemic insults. The present study was undertaken to examine whether pre- and post-insult treatments with VPA protect against brain infarct and neurological deficits in mouse transient (tMCAO) and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) models. In the tMCAO (2 hr MCAO and 22 hr reperfusion) model, intraperitoneal injection of VPA (300 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to MCAO significantly reduced the infarct size and the neurological deficit. VPA treatment immediately after reperfusion significantly reduced the infarct size. The administration of VPA at 4 hr after reperfusion failed to reduce the infarct size and the neurological deficit. In the pMCAO model, treatment with VPA (300 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to MCAO significantly attenuated the infarct size, but did not affect the neurological deficit. Western blot analysis of acetylated H3 and H4 protein levels in extracts from the ischemic cortical area showed that treatment with VPA increased the expression of acetylated H3 and H4 at 2 hrs after MCAO. These results demonstrated that treatment with VPA prior to ischemia attenuated ischemic brain damage in both mice tMCAO and pMCAO models and treatment with VPA immediately after reperfusion reduced the infarct area in the tMCAO model. VPA could therefore be evaluated for clinical use in stroke patients. Source

Yang B.-C.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lee N.-J.,Chungbuk National University | Im G.-S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Seong H.-H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 4 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part B - Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2011

The composition and nutritional value of meat and milk derived from cloned animals and their progeny has not been demonstrated to be different from normal animals, but possible food consumption risks that might arise from unidentified hazards remain. In this study, we investigated the effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloned-cattle meat diet on the behavioral and reproductive characteristics of F1 rats derived from dams that were also fed on cloned-cattle meat. Methods and results: F1 rats were divided into five diet groups with their dams: commercial pellets (control), pellets containing 5% (N-5) and 10% (N-10) of normal-cattle meat, and diets containing 5% (C-5) and 10% (C-10) of cloned-cattle meat. In most cases, the cloned-cattle meat diet did not affect body weight and food consumption in both male and female F1 rats during 11 weeks, except for significantly higher body weight in both N-5 and N-10 (3-5 weeks, p<0.05 or p<0.01) and significantly higher food consumption in the both normal- and cloned-cattle meat groups (7-9 weeks, p<0.05 or p<0.01), as compared with the controls, respectively. We detected no signs of test substance-related toxicities on organ weights and behavioral characteristics (sensory reflex, motor function, and spatial learning and memory tests). Reproductive functions did not significantly differ among all examined rats (mating, fertility, and implantation). Conclusions: These behavioral and reproductive toxicity results suggest that there are no obvious food safety concerns related to cloned-cattle meat in these parameters. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Jones O.A.H.,University of Cambridge | Jones O.A.H.,Durham University | Maguire M.L.,University of Oxford | Griffin J.L.,University of Cambridge | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

A metabolomics based approach has been used to study the infection of the Hwacheong rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hwacheong) with compatible (KJ201) and incompatible (KJ401) strains of the rice blast fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. The metabolic response of the rice plants to each strain was assessed 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h post inoculation. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Gas and Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (GC/LC-MS/MS) were used to study both aqueous and organic phase metabolites, collectively resulting in the identification of 93 compounds. Clear metabolic profiles were observed at each time point but there were no significant differences in the metabolic response elicited by each pathogen strain until 24 h post inoculation. The largest change was found to be in alanine, which was ~30% (±9%) higher in the leaves from the compatible, compared to the resistant, plants. Together with several other metabolites (malate, glutamine, proline, cinnamate and an unknown sugar) alanine exhibited a good correlation between time of fungal penetration into the leaf and the divergence of metabolite profiles in each interaction. The results indicate both that a wide range of metabolites can be identified in rice leaves and that metabolomics has potential for the study of biochemical changes in plant-pathogen interactions. © 2010 KNPV. Source

Lee Y.-H.,Biotoxtech Co. | Kim D.,Biotoxtech Co. | Lee M.J.,Biotoxtech Co. | Kim M.J.,Biotoxtech Co. | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) is a medical herb from the family Ranunculacease that has been used to treat gastroenteritis, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, and severe skin diseases. Aim of the study To evaluate the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and the toxicity of CR, following repeat oral administration to rats for 13 weeks. Materials and methods CR was administered by oral gavage to groups of rats (n=10/group, each sex) at dose levels of 0 (control), 25, 74, 222, 667 or 2000 mg/kg/day 5 times per week for 13 weeks. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, vaginal cytology and sperm morphology, organ weights, gross and histopathological findings were compared between control and CR groups. Results Urinalysis showed a significant increase in N-acety1-β-glucosaminidase in males in the 2000 mg/kg/day group (P<0.01). However, no mortality or remarkable clinical signs were observed during this 13-week study. No adverse effects on body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, gross lesion, histopathology, vaginal cytology, sperm motility, or deformity were observed in the males or female rats treated with CR. Conclusions On the basis of these results, the NOAEL of CR is determined to be 667 mg/kg/day for males and 2000 mg/kg/day for females. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Nam C.,Biotoxtech Co. | Hwang J.-S.,Biotoxtech Co. | Kim M.-J.,Biotoxtech Co. | Choi Y.W.,Pusan National University | And 3 more authors.
Toxicological Research | Year: 2015

Lithospermum erythrorhizon has long been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diseases, including skin cancer. The oral toxicity of a hexane extract of Lithospermum erythrorhizon root (LEH) was investigated in Beagle dogs by using single escalating doses, two-week dose range-finding, and 4-week oral repeat dosing. In the single dose-escalating oral toxicity study, no animal died, showed adverse clinical signs, or changes in body weight gain at LEH doses of up to 2,000 mg/kg. In a 2 week dose range-finding study, no treatment-related adverse effects were detected by urinalysis, hematology, blood biochemistry, organ weights, or gross and histopathological examinations at doses of up to 500 mg LEH/kg/day. In the 4 week repeat-dose toxicity study, a weight loss or decreased weight gain was observed at 300 mg/kg/day. Although levels of serum triglyceride and total bilirubin were increased in a dose dependent manner, there were no related morphological changes. Based on these findings, the sub-acute no observable adverse effect level for 4-week oral administration of LEH in Beagles was 100 mg/kg/day. Source

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