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Valbonne, France

Desneux N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Wajnberg E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Wyckhuys K.A.G.,University of Cundinamarca | Burgio G.,University of Bologna | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science

The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a devastating pest of tomato originating from South America. After its initial detection in eastern Spain in 2006, it rapidly invaded various other European countries and spread throughout the Mediterranean basin. If no control measures are taken, then the pest can cause up to 80-100% yield losses in tomato crops in recently invaded areas and may pose a threat to both greenhouse and open-field tomato production. The exceptional speed and extent of T. absoluta invasion have called for studies documenting its biology and ecology, while indicating an urgent need for efficient and sustainable management methods. The development of approaches to manage T. absoluta would be facilitated through a detailed revision of information on this pest in its area of origin. This review combines information on the invasion by T. absoluta, its ecology, and potential management strategies, including data that may help the implementation of efficient biological control programs. These programs, together with a variety of other management tactics, may allow efficient integrated pest management of T. absoluta in Europe and Mediterranean Basin countries. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Vayssieres J.-F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vayssieres J.-F.,Biol Cont Unit Afr | Cayol J.-P.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Caplong P.,Chamb. Agriculture | And 6 more authors.

Introduction. This study was carried out in French Guiana, over ten years (1994-2003) by three institutions (SPV, FDGPC and CIRAD); it updates the current state of knowledge of Tephritidae (both Dacini and Toxotrypanini tribes) species present in this country. Materials and methods. The work was mainly conducted in inhabited areas (from the Brazilian border to the Surinamese border) where cultivated fruit crops are located. Specimens were obtained by adult trapping and fruit sampling in nearby orchards and at the edge of the rainforest. Trapping was done consistently for 10 years, while fruit sampling was a discontinuous activity. We present only the results for fruit sampling from three consecutive years (2001-2003) in which a total of 880 kg from 45 fruit species in 22 plant families were collected. Results. Twenty-nine plant species from fourteen plant families were found to be hosts of twenty-one Anastrepha species and one Bactrocera species, Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock. During this period, no specimen of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was collected in traps or fruit samples. We registered the main fruit trees which were hosts for B. carambolae and Anastrepha spp. Five hymenopterous parasitoid species were identified. Among them, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is an exotic species and was introduced into French Guiana in collaboration with Brazilian authorities (EMBRAPA) in 2000 and 2001 within the framework of a classical biological control program. Conclusion. Our data provide baseline information about the tephritid species of economic importance present in French Guiana and assist in developing potential future control programs of both the B. carambolae and Anastrepha species in the Amazon Basin. These preliminary results are discussed in the light of their implication for rainforest conservation efforts and also evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts. © 2013 Cirad/EDP Sciences. Source

Pizzol J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Nammour D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hervouet P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Poncet C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae

The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are among the major pests in rose greenhouses in southern France. For integrated thrips management, the predator Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) is available as a biological control agent, but it is not always efficient enough in case of heavy contamination of rose crops by the thrips. In this context, we tested the effectiveness of another predator, Franklinothrips vespiformis (Crawford) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) against thrips. The experiments were performed in an insect-proof rose greenhouse (576 m2). The efficiency of the predator F. vespiformis was tested in combination with N. cucumeris and compared to N. cucumeris alone while the thrips population dynamics in the rose greenhouse were monitored. The combined use of F. vespiformis (5 adults per m2) with releases of N. cucumeris during the periods of heavy infestation gave better results than when using N. cucumeris alone; these results were observed both against adult thrips and larvae. Our results point at the importance of combining various natural enemies against thrips in rose greenhouses, and their implication for Integrated Pest Management on roses are discussed. Source

Chailleux A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Desneux N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Seguret J.,Biotop | Do Thi Khanh H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.

The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. © 2012 Chailleux et al. Source

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