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Dereli R.K.,Biothane Systems International | Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Delft | Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Istanbul | Urban D.R.,Biothane LLC | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2012

The ethanol industry has grown rapidly during the past ten years, mainly due to increasing oil prices. However, efficient and cost-effective solutions for treating thin stillage wastewater have still to be developed. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology combines classical anaerobic treatment in a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with membrane separation. The combination of these two technologies can achieve a superior effluent quality and also increase biogas production compared to conventional anaerobic solutions. A pilot-scale AnMBR treating thin stillage achieved very high treatment efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal (>98%). An average permeate flux of 4.3 L/m2.h was achieved at relatively low transmembrane pressure (TMP) values (0.1-0.2 bars) with flat-sheet membranes. Experience gained during the pilot-scale studies provides valuable information for scaling up of AnMBRs treating complex and high-strength wastewaters. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source


Heffernan B.,Biothane Systems International | Spanjers H.,Technical University of Delft
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences | Year: 2012

A mathematical model was developed to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the treatment of municipal sewage. The model took into account emissions from upstream, on-site and downstream activities. The emissions for three different sewage treatment configurations were estimated, consisting of an activated sludge system preceded by a primary settler, and by anaerobic pre-treatment (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket, UASB): with and without recovery of dissolved CH4 from the anaerobic effluent. The UASB-based configuration with dissolved CH4 recovery had the lowest direct emission of 6900 ton CO2 eq/y and the highest avoided emissions (4200 ton CO2 eq/y). In contrast, when dissolved CH4 recovery was not applied, the UASB-based configuration had the highest direct emissions: 25,500 ton CO2 eq/y. The primary clarification based configuration had similar emissions to the UASB-based configuration without CH4 recovery from the effluent. In addition to having the lowest GHG emissions, the UASB configuration with CH4 recovery was also the cheapest configuration to operate. This configuration produced excess electricity from the combustion of CH4 produced during the process. In comparison, the combustion of CH4 from primary sludge digestion provided only 48% of the electrical needs of the primary clarifier configuration. Finally, the excess sludge production from the UASB configuration with CH4 recovery was 56% less than that produced by the primary clarification configuration. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Heffernan B.,Biothane Systems International | Van Lier J.B.,Technical University of Delft | Van Der Lubbe J.,Biothane Systems International
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011

This article evaluates the performance of 10 large scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) sewage treatment plants (STP) located in semi-tropical areas, 7 plants were located in Brazil, 2 in India and 1 in the Middle East. In addition to the UASB, essential functional units of the STP which potentially impact on the UASB are also evaluated. Most grit removal systems were performing adequately, however in one plant very little grit was being removed. This could have serious implications for the performance of the plant as in a relatively short period of time the reactors could become full of grit. The performance results obtained in this study (COD, BOD and TSS removal efficiencies) are compared to the results of recent literature publications and also to the results of some early pilot and full scale studies. The results found here are broadly similar to those result reported in the recent literature but show a lower performance in comparison with the early pilot scale plants. Factors such as improper design, poor operating procedures, insufficient maintenance and the presence of high sulphate concentrations have been identified as the main reasons for the lower performance. © IWA Publishing 2010. Source


van Lier J.B.,Technical University of Delft | van der Zee F.P.,Biothane Systems International | Frijters C.T.M.J.,Paques BV | Ersahin M.E.,Technical University of Delft | Ersahin M.E.,Technical University of Istanbul
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

In the last 40 years, anaerobic sludge bed reactor technology evolved from localized lab-scale trials to worldwide successful implementations at a variety of industries. High-rate sludge bed reactors are characterized by a very small foot print and high applicable volumetric loading rates. Best performances are obtained when the sludge bed consists of highly active and well settleable granular sludge. Sludge granulation provides a rich microbial diversity, high biomass concentration, high solids retention time, good settling characteristics, reduction in both the operation costs and reactor volume, and high tolerance to inhibitors and temperature changes. However, sludge granulation cannot be guaranteed on every type of industrial wastewater. Especially in the last two decades, various types of high-rate anaerobic reactor configurations have been developed that are less dependent on the presence of granular sludge, and many of them are currently successfully applied for the treatment of various kinds of industrial wastewaters worldwide. This study discusses the evolution of anaerobic sludge bed technology for the treatment of industrial wastewaters in the last four decades, focusing on granular sludge bed systems. © 2015, The Author(s). Source


Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Istanbul | Loverdou L.,Technical University of Delft | van der Zee F.P.,Biothane Systems International | van Lier J.B.,Technical University of Delft
Water Research | Year: 2015

The influence of substrate acidification on sludge filtration characteristics was systematically investigated by using short term filtration tests. Four reactors were operated with raw and acidified whey permeate in order to evaluate the effect of acidogens on sludge filterability. The results showed that feeding non-acidified substrate promoted the growth of acidogens which in return decreased the median particle size of the sludge and adversely influenced specific resistance to filtration (SRF). In addition to the presence of acidogens, the food to mass (F:M) ratio was found as an important operation parameter on sludge filterability. Various filterability indicators, such as capillary suction time (CST), SRF and supernatant filterability, tended to became worse at increased F:M ratios. The decreased filterability at high F:M ratio was attributed to the accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP) in the reactors. Interestingly, impact of acidogens on short term critical flux tests was not significant, but this may be a consequence of the experimental set-up. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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