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PubMed | Paques BV, Technical University of Delft and Biothane Systems International
Type: | Journal: Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology | Year: 2016

In the last 40 years, anaerobic sludge bed reactor technology has evolved from localized laboratory-scale trials to worldwide successful implementations in a variety of industries. High-rate sludge bed reactors are characterized by a very small footprint and high applicable volumetric loading rates. Best performances are obtained when the sludge bed consists of highly active and well settleable granular sludge. Sludge granulation provides a rich microbial diversity, high biomass concentration, high solids retention time, good settling characteristics, reduction in both operation costs and reactor volume, and high tolerance to inhibitors and temperature changes. However, sludge granulation cannot be guaranteed on every type of industrial wastewater. Especially in the last two decades, various types of high-rate anaerobic reactor configurations have been developed that are less dependent on the presence of granular sludge, and many of them are currently successfully used for the treatment of various kinds of industrial wastewaters worldwide. This study discusses the evolution of anaerobic sludge bed technology for the treatment of industrial wastewaters in the last four decades, focusing on granular sludge bed systems.


Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Istanbul | Loverdou L.,Technical University of Delft | van der Zee F.P.,Biothane Systems International | van Lier J.B.,Technical University of Delft
Water Research | Year: 2015

The influence of substrate acidification on sludge filtration characteristics was systematically investigated by using short term filtration tests. Four reactors were operated with raw and acidified whey permeate in order to evaluate the effect of acidogens on sludge filterability. The results showed that feeding non-acidified substrate promoted the growth of acidogens which in return decreased the median particle size of the sludge and adversely influenced specific resistance to filtration (SRF). In addition to the presence of acidogens, the food to mass (F:M) ratio was found as an important operation parameter on sludge filterability. Various filterability indicators, such as capillary suction time (CST), SRF and supernatant filterability, tended to became worse at increased F:M ratios. The decreased filterability at high F:M ratio was attributed to the accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP) in the reactors. Interestingly, impact of acidogens on short term critical flux tests was not significant, but this may be a consequence of the experimental set-up. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Delft | Loverdou L.,Technical University of Delft | van der Zee F.P.,Biothane Systems International | van Lier J.B.,Technical University of Delft
Water research | Year: 2015

The influence of substrate acidification on sludge filtration characteristics was systematically investigated by using short term filtration tests. Four reactors were operated with raw and acidified whey permeate in order to evaluate the effect of acidogens on sludge filterability. The results showed that feeding non-acidified substrate promoted the growth of acidogens which in return decreased the median particle size of the sludge and adversely influenced specific resistance to filtration (SRF). In addition to the presence of acidogens, the food to mass (F:M) ratio was found as an important operation parameter on sludge filterability. Various filterability indicators, such as capillary suction time (CST), SRF and supernatant filterability, tended to became worse at increased F:M ratios. The decreased filterability at high F:M ratio was attributed to the accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP) in the reactors. Interestingly, impact of acidogens on short term critical flux tests was not significant, but this may be a consequence of the experimental set-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Delft | Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Istanbul | van der Zee F.P.,Biothane Systems International | Heffernan B.,Biothane Systems International | And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich wastewaters by granular sludge bed reactors. The AnMBRs achieved high COD removal efficiencies up to 99% and excellent effluent quality. Although higher organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 8.0kg CODm-3d-1 could be applied to the reactors operated at shorter SRTs, better biological degradation efficiencies, i.e. up to 83%, was achieved at increased SRTs. Severe long chain fatty acid (LCFA) inhibition was observed at 50 days SRT, possibly caused by the extensive dissolution of LCFA in the reactor broth, inhibiting the methanogenic biomass. Physicochemical mechanisms such as precipitation with divalent cations and adsorption on the sludge played an important role in the occurrence of LCFA removal, conversion, and inhibition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Delft | Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Istanbul | Ersahin M.E.,Technical University of Delft | Ersahin M.E.,Technical University of Istanbul | And 6 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

This review presents a comprehensive summary on applications of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology for industrial wastewaters in view of different aspects including treatability and filterability. AnMBRs present an attractive option for the treatment of industrial wastewaters at extreme conditions, such as high salinity, high temperature, high suspended solids concentrations, and toxicity that hamper granulation and retention of biomass or reduce the biological activity. So far, most of the research has been conducted at laboratory scale; however, also a number of full-scale AnMBR systems is currently being operated worldwide. Membrane fouling, a multivariable process, is still a research quest that requires further investigation. In fact, membrane fouling and flux decline present the most important reasons that hamper the wide-spread application of full-scale reactors. This paper addresses a detailed assessment and discussion on treatability and filterability of industrial wastewaters in both lab- and full-scale AnMBR applications, the encountered problems and future opportunities. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Heffernan B.,Biothane Systems International | Van Lier J.B.,Technical University of Delft | Van Der Lubbe J.,Biothane Systems International
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011

This article evaluates the performance of 10 large scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) sewage treatment plants (STP) located in semi-tropical areas, 7 plants were located in Brazil, 2 in India and 1 in the Middle East. In addition to the UASB, essential functional units of the STP which potentially impact on the UASB are also evaluated. Most grit removal systems were performing adequately, however in one plant very little grit was being removed. This could have serious implications for the performance of the plant as in a relatively short period of time the reactors could become full of grit. The performance results obtained in this study (COD, BOD and TSS removal efficiencies) are compared to the results of recent literature publications and also to the results of some early pilot and full scale studies. The results found here are broadly similar to those result reported in the recent literature but show a lower performance in comparison with the early pilot scale plants. Factors such as improper design, poor operating procedures, insufficient maintenance and the presence of high sulphate concentrations have been identified as the main reasons for the lower performance. © IWA Publishing 2010.


PubMed | Technical University of Delft, Biothane Systems International and Veolia
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2014

Long-term experiments were conducted to assess the impact of changing the solids retention time (SRT) on sludge filterability in anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), treating corn-based bioethanol thin stillage. Well established parameters, such as capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), developed for sludge dewatering, were used to evaluate the SRT effect on sludge filterability. Our results clearly demonstrated that SRT is one of the most important factors influencing sludge filterability in AnMBRs. SRT effects the accumulation of fine particles and solutes, which were found to affect attainable flux and fouling, in reactor broth. A better filterability was observed at a SRT of 20 days compared to elevated SRTs, i.e. 50 days. A clear correlation between sludge filtration characteristics and membrane filtration resistance could not be established especially at short SRTs, whereas many parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), CST, soluble microbial products (SMP) and supernatant filterability were found to be mutually correlated. Net membrane fluxes between 9 and 13Lm(-2)h(-1) were obtained at 0.5ms(-1) cross-flow velocity and the long term fouling was controlled by using frequent filtration and backwash cycles.


PubMed | Technical University of Delft and Biothane Systems International
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2015

The influence of substrate acidification on sludge filtration characteristics was systematically investigated by using short term filtration tests. Four reactors were operated with raw and acidified whey permeate in order to evaluate the effect of acidogens on sludge filterability. The results showed that feeding non-acidified substrate promoted the growth of acidogens which in return decreased the median particle size of the sludge and adversely influenced specific resistance to filtration (SRF). In addition to the presence of acidogens, the food to mass (F:M) ratio was found as an important operation parameter on sludge filterability. Various filterability indicators, such as capillary suction time (CST), SRF and supernatant filterability, tended to became worse at increased F:M ratios. The decreased filterability at high F:M ratio was attributed to the accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP) in the reactors. Interestingly, impact of acidogens on short term critical flux tests was not significant, but this may be a consequence of the experimental set-up.


Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Delft | Dereli R.K.,Technical University of Istanbul | Grelot A.,Biothane Systems International | Grelot A.,Veolia | And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

Long-term experiments were conducted to assess the impact of changing the solids retention time (SRT) on sludge filterability in anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), treating corn-based bioethanol thin stillage. Well established parameters, such as capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), developed for sludge dewatering, were used to evaluate the SRT effect on sludge filterability. Our results clearly demonstrated that SRT is one of the most important factors influencing sludge filterability in AnMBRs. SRT effects the accumulation of fine particles and solutes, which were found to affect attainable flux and fouling, in reactor broth. A better filterability was observed at a SRT of 20 days compared to elevated SRTs, i.e. 50 days. A clear correlation between sludge filtration characteristics and membrane filtration resistance could not be established especially at short SRTs, whereas many parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), CST, soluble microbial products (SMP) and supernatant filterability were found to be mutually correlated. Net membrane fluxes between 9 and 13Lm-2h-1 were obtained at 0.5ms-1 cross-flow velocity and the long term fouling was controlled by using frequent filtration and backwash cycles. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Technical University of Delft, Biothane Systems International and Veolia
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2014

The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich wastewaters by granular sludge bed reactors. The AnMBRs achieved high COD removal efficiencies up to 99% and excellent effluent quality. Although higher organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 8.0kg CODm(-3)d(-1) could be applied to the reactors operated at shorter SRTs, better biological degradation efficiencies, i.e. up to 83%, was achieved at increased SRTs. Severe long chain fatty acid (LCFA) inhibition was observed at 50 days SRT, possibly caused by the extensive dissolution of LCFA in the reactor broth, inhibiting the methanogenic biomass. Physicochemical mechanisms such as precipitation with divalent cations and adsorption on the sludge played an important role in the occurrence of LCFA removal, conversion, and inhibition.

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