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Winooski, VT, United States

Cunniff B.,University of Vermont | Benson K.,University of Vermont | Stumpff J.,University of Vermont | Newick K.,University of Vermont | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2013

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an intractable tumor of the peritoneal and pleural cavities primarily linked to exposure to asbestos. Recently, we described an interplay between mitochondrial-derived oxidants and expression of FOXM1, a redox-responsive transcription factor that has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in solid malignancies. Here we have investigated the effects of nitroxides targeted to mitochondria via triphenylphosphonium (TPP) moieties on mitochondrial oxidant production, expression of FOXM1 and peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3), and cell viability in MM cells in culture. Both Mito-carboxy-proxyl (MCP) and Mito-TEMPOL (MT) caused dose-dependent increases in mitochondrial oxidant production that was accompanied by inhibition of expression of FOXM1 and PRX3 and loss of cell viability. At equivalent concentrations TPP, CP, and TEMPOL had no effect on these endpoints. Live cell ratiometric imaging with a redox-responsive green fluorescent protein targeted to mitochondria (mito-roGFP) showed that MCP and MT, but not CP, TEMPOL, or TPP, rapidly induced mitochondrial fragmentation and swelling, morphological transitions that were associated with diminished ATP levels and increased production of mitochondrial oxidants. Mdivi-1, an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission, did not rescue mitochondria from fragmentation by MCP. Immunofluorescence microscopy experiments indicate a fraction of FOXM1 coexists in the cytoplasm with mitochondrial PRX3. Our results indicate that MCP and MT inhibit FOXM1 expression and MM tumor cell viability via perturbations in redox homeostasis caused by marked disruption of mitochondrial architecture, and suggest that both compounds, either alone or in combination with thiostrepton or other agents, may provide credible therapeutic options for the management of MM. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Newick K.,University of Vermont | Cunniff B.,University of Vermont | Preston K.,University of Vermont | Held P.,Biotek Instruments | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Thiostrepton (TS) is a thiazole antibiotic that inhibits expression of FOXM1, an oncogenic transcription factor required for cell cycle progression and resistance to oncogene-induced oxidative stress. The mechanism of action of TS is unclear and strategies that enhance TS activity will improve its therapeutic potential. Analysis of human tumor specimens showed FOXM1 is broadly expressed in malignant mesothelioma (MM), an intractable tumor associated with asbestos exposure. The mechanism of action of TS was investigated in a cell culture model of human MM. As for other tumor cell types, TS inhibited expression of FOXM1 in MM cells in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression of FOXM1 expression and coincidental activation of ERK1/2 by TS were abrogated by pre-incubation of cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), indicating its mechanism of action in MM cells is redox-dependent. Examination of the mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase 2 (TR2)-thioredoxin 2 (TRX2)-peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) antioxidant network revealed that TS modifies the electrophoretic mobility of PRX3. Incubation of recombinant human PRX3 with TS in vitro also resulted in PRX3 with altered electrophoretic mobility. The cellular and recombinant species of modified PRX3 were resistant to dithiothreitol and SDS and suppressed by NAC, indicating that TS covalently adducts cysteine residues in PRX3. Reduction of endogenous mitochondrial TRX2 levels by the cationic triphenylmethane gentian violet (GV) promoted modification of PRX3 by TS and significantly enhanced its cytotoxic activity. Our results indicate TS covalently adducts PRX3, thereby disabling a major mitochondrial antioxidant network that counters chronic mitochondrial oxidative stress. Redox-active compounds like GV that modify the TR2/TRX2 network may significantly enhance the efficacy of TS, thereby providing a combinatorial approach for exploiting redox-dependent perturbations in mitochondrial function as a therapeutic approach in mesothelioma. © 2012 Newick et al. Source


Larson B.,Biotek Instruments | Rieger L.,Biotek Instruments | Tseng H.,Nano3D Biosciences, Inc. | Souza G.R.,Nano3D Biosciences, Inc. | Velkova-Krei A.,Greiner Bio One GmbH
BioSpektrum | Year: 2016

Migration assays are a common tool to screen toxic effects of compounds. However, assays using monolayer cell cultures may not entirely represent a native in vivo environment and may result in misinterpretation of compound toxicity. Magnetic 3D bioprinting in combination with automated kinetic imaging provides an easy and robust high-throughput screening approach of compound effects on cell migration in a 3D environment. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Larson B.,Biotek Instruments | Moeller T.,Celsis in Vitro Technologies | Banks P.,Biotek Instruments | Cali J.J.,Promega Corporation
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2011

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are key players in drug metabolism. Therefore, it is essential to understand how these enzymes can be affected by xenobiotics with regards to induction and toxicity to avoid potential drug-drug interactions. Typically, information has been gathered by combining data from multiple experiments, which is time-consuming and labor intensive, and interassay variability may lead to misinterpretation. Monitoring CYP induction and cytotoxicity by xenobiotics using an automated, multiplexed format can decrease workload and increase data confidence. Here the authors demonstrate the ability to monitor CYP1A and CYP3A4 induction, combined with a cytotoxicity measurement, from a single microplate well using cryopreserved human hepatocytes. The assay procedure was automated in a 384-well format, including cell manipulations, compound titration and transfer, and reagent dispensing, using simple robotic instrumentation. EC 50 and E max values were derived for multiple known CYP1A and -3A4 inducers. Induction and toxicological responses in the triplex system were validated based on literature values from conventional single-parameter assays. Validation and pharmacology data confirm that multiplexed cell-based CYP assays can simplify workload, save time and effort, and generate biologically relevant data. © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Source

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