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Dhiman S.S.,Biotechnology Group | Garg G.,Kurukshetra University | Sharma J.,Kurukshetra University | Mahajan R.,Kurukshetra University | Methoxy,Environment and Resource Management Group
New Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Critical factors for xylanase production of Bacillus stearothermophilus under batch fermentation and for clarification of citrus fruit juice using this xylanase were optimized through central composite design of response surface methodology. Statistical approach resulted in an increase of 1.19-fold in xylanase yield over conventional method. Model equation for juice clarification included independent variables viz. temperature, incubation time and enzyme dose to study the dependent variables such as yield, acidic neutrality and filterability etc. Coefficient of determination, R 2 for enzyme production model and for different juice properties were in accordance with the linearity of the model. On the basis of the contour plots the optimum enzyme dose was 12.5IU/g of xylanase. Enzymatic treatment has resulted in the improvement of twofold in the release of reducing sugars and 52.97% in juice yield, whereas 35.34% reduction in turbidity was observed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Garg G.,Kurukshetra University | Dhiman S.S.,Biotechnology Group | Mahajan R.,Kurukshetra University | Kaur A.,Kurukshetra University | Sharma J.,Kurukshetra University
New Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Pretreatment of wheat straw pulp using cellulase-free xylanase produced from Bacillus stearothermophilus SDX at 60°C for 120min resulted in 4.75% and 22.31% increase in brightness and whiteness, respectively. Enzyme dose of 10U/g of oven dried pulp at pH 9 decreased the kappa number and permanganate number by 7.14% and 5.31%, respectively. Further chlorine dioxide and alkaline bleaching sequences (CDED1D2) resulted in 1.76% and 3.63% increase in brightness and whiteness, respectively. Enzymatic prebleaching of pulp decreased 20% of chlorine consumption without any decrease in brightness. Improvement in various pulp properties like viscosity, burst factor, burstness, breaking length, double fold, gurley porosity, tear factor, and tearness were also observed after bleaching of xylanase treated wheat straw pulp. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

de Carvalho Silva R.,Federal University of Amazonas | Luis Z.G.,University of Brasilia | Scherwinski-Pereira J.E.,Biotechnology Group
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2014

Understanding the fate and dynamics of cells during callus formation is essential to understanding totipotency and the somatic embryogenesis (SE) mechanisms. In the present study, the histodifferentiation events involved during the acquisition and development of somatic embryogenesis in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) was investigated. Zygotic embryos were inoculated on SE induction medium, and at 14 days the first divisions of the procambial and perivascular cells were observed. This region progressed to the formation of meristematic masses at 21 days, indicating their procambial and perivascular origin. Primary calli emerged at 45 days of culture, followed by progression to embryogenic calli at 90 days. The formation of proembryos (PE) from the meristematic cells occurred at 135 days of cultivation. The PE were isolated from the tissue of origin by the slight thickening of the cell wall, indicating their unicellular origin. When transferred to the maturation phase, differentiation of the somatic embryos at different developmental stages (globular and torpedo) was observed. The differentiated somatic embryos presented protoderm, procambial strands and plumules. Afterwards, they were transferred to culture medium without growth regulators in which conversion of the somatic embryos from torpedo stage into plants was observed. These results enable a greater understanding of the SE process and plantlet formation in E. guineensis. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kishore Babu N.,Andhra University | Balakrishnan K.,Biotechnology Group | Raghava Rao T.,Andhra University | Seshagiri Rao G.,Andhra University
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Sodium-alginate immobilized yeast strain (NCIM3640) was employed to produce ethanol continuously using cane molasses as a carbon source in repeated batch fermentation system. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Fermentation was carried out six cycles with 200, 400 or 600 beads using 150, 200 or 250 g sugar in molasses/L-1. The maximum amount of ethanol produced byimmobilized NCIM 3640 strain suing 150 g glucose was only after 36 hr, while the amount of ethanol produced by free cells in the first cycle was 71.92 g ethanol L-1. However in subsequent fed batch cultures more ethanol was produced by immobilized cells compared to free cell. The amount of ethanol produced by free cells decreased from 71.38 to 48.10 gL-1after the fourth cycle, while that of immobilized cells increased from 37.21 to 71.12g L-1. Among the three strains such as NCIM3, the maximum amount of ethanol produced by immobilized NCIM 3640 cells using 150, 200 and 250 g molasses/L-1 was 61, 86.2 and 80.2 g ethanol L-1 respectively at 30°C.

Yadav R.D.,Ballarpur Industries Ltd BILT | Chaudhry S.,Kurukshetra University | Dhiman S.S.,Biotechnology Group
BioResources | Year: 2010

Mixed hardwood chips were treated with lignin-degrading fungi to study the effect of fungal pretreatment on bleaching characteristics of kraft pulp. Pretreated wood chips were subjected to reduced active alkali doses in comparison to untreated chips. Comparable results were obtained for pretreated chips with reduced alkali dose as was obtained with higher dose of alkali in case of untreated chips. Fungal treatment made the process more energy-efficient, and 4.8% less chlorine was consumed in comparison to the control process. Pretreatment with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora was responsible for reduction of 4.7% in lignin contents, 14.3% permanganate number, and overall reduction of 15.5 kg/T of Cl 2s consumption. The pollution load in terms of COD and BOD at the C D stage was reduced by 32.6% and 41.5% respectively, whereas 12% reduction in AOX compounds was observed in effluent of pretreated pulp.

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