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News Article | October 10, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

University of Leicester researchers have developed a new approach for analysing toxic chemicals in complex samples that mimics the way mammals smell and taste. The technique could reduce the need for laboratory animals in biomedical research and other areas of chemical testing. In the study a fluorescent assay combines a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physiological conditions. Using multivariate data analysis, the optical signal is further processed, providing qualitative information and fast diagnostics. The study was originally inspired by the operating principle of the electronic noses and tongues systems which mimic mammalian smell and taste recognition, combining semi-specific sensors and chemometric techniques for monitoring biochemical processes. The Leicester Biotechnology Group at the University of Leicester has used similar principles, replacing electronic sensors with dyes array and applied them with human cells. This combination has allowed transforming complex fluorescent spectra into a simple answer – whether the chemical compound is toxic or not. While a digitized fluorescence image is a very high-dimensional vector - more than 250,000 numbers each - the number of tested chemicals is much less. The researchers suggest the dimensionality reduction is the first task to overcome, with the challenge being how to transform the high dimension signal to a much lower dimension while keeping all important information safe. Alexander Gorban, Professor of Applied Mathematics in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Leicester, said: "Firstly, we represented each signal by its projections on other signals. Secondly, we applied the classical and very popular model reduction method, Principal Component Analysis, and found five main components of the signals. "Then we used dozens of various linear and nonlinear data analysis methods for the five-dimensional signals and validate the classifiers on the previously unseen data. Our approach can be considered as 'explicit deep learning', an explicit version of widely popularized (implicit) deep learning algorithms." The results had high accuracy, with both specificity and sensitivity above 90 per cent. Sergey Piletsky, Professor of Bioanalytical Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Leicester, commented: "The latest finding is a big step not only in toxicology, providing a modern, inexpensive and more efficient in vitro method but also in development of sensor assays for rapid quantification of a wide range of analytes which has always been a great challenge faced by analytical scientists. "It can also reduce the need for laboratory animals in biomedical research, pharmaceutical industry, other areas of chemical testing and health diagnostics."


Torres Pazmino D.E.,Biotechnology group | Winkler M.,University of Graz | Glieder A.,University of Graz | Fraaije M.W.,Biotechnology group
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Monooxygenases are enzymes that catalyze the insertion of a single oxygen atom from O2 into an organic substrate. In order to carry out this type of reaction, these enzymes need to activate molecular oxygen to overcome its spin-forbidden reaction with the organic substrate. In most cases, monooxygenases utilize (in)organic cofactors to transfer electrons to molecular oxygen for its activation. Monooxygenases typically are highly chemo-, regio-, and/or enantioselective, making them attractive biocatalysts. In this review, an exclusive overview of known monooxygenases is presented, based on the type of cofactor that these enzymes require. This includes not only the cytochrome P450 and flavin-dependent monooxygenases, but also enzymes that utilize pterin, metal ions (copper or iron) or no cofactor at all. As most of these monooxygenases require nicotinamide coenzymes as electron donors, also an overview of current methods for coenzyme regeneration is given. This latter overview is of relevance for the biotechnological applications of these oxidative enzymes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ebrahimi B.,Biotechnology Group | Shojaosadati S.A.,Biotechnology Group | Ranaie S.O.,Shahid Beheshti University | Mousavi S.M.,Biotechnology Group | Mousavi S.M.,Lappeenranta University of Technology
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2010

In the present attempt a method for the immobilization of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) was developed. In this method, the enzyme was immobilized onto a ceramic cylinder support using a sol-gel-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the design and analysis of immobilization experiments. Quadratic mathematical model equations were derived for the prediction of enzyme activity. Then the effects on enzyme activity at 30, 40 and 50 min after process initiation of varying each of two parameters over five levels were investigated. These parameters were the AChE:MWCNT ratio (X1), and AChE-MWCNT:sol-gel ratio (X2). The optimum values of X1 and X2 for the immobilization of AChE on ceramic packing were found to be 1.07 and 0.43, respectively. Using these optimum parameters it was shown that enzyme immobilization with MWCNTs and sol-gel was more effective than immobilization with sol-gel or graphite and sol-gel. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images revealed a porous surface comprised of MWCNT-AChE encapsulated in sol-gel. Furthermore, the system was highly reproducible with standard deviations after three successive assays of 1.88%, 2.11% and 2.13% at 30, 40 and 50 min after process initiation, respectively. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


The report covers forecast and analysis for the monosodium glutamate market on a global and regional level. The study provides historic data of 2014 along with a forecast from 2015 to 2020 based on both volume (kilo tons) and revenue (USD million). The study includes drivers and restraints of the monosodium glutamate market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the monosodium glutamate market on a global level. In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view on the monosodium glutamate, we have included a detailed competitive scenario and product portfolio of key vendors. To understand the competitive landscape in the market, an analysis of Porter’s five forces model for the monosodium glutamate market has also been included. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein application segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness. The study provides a decisive view on the monosodium glutamate market by segmenting the market based on applications and regions. All the segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market is estimated from 2014 to 2020. Based on application, monosodium glutamate market can segmented into food processing industry (snacks, canned food, frozen food, others), restaurants, and institutional food service. The regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa with its further bifurcation into major countries including U.S., Germany, France, UK, China, Japan, India and Brazil. The report covers detailed competitive outlook including the market share and company profiles of the key participants operating in the global monosodium glutamate market includeFufeng Group, Meihua Group, Ajinomoto, Lotus Group,  Ningxia Eppen, Shandong Qilu Biotechnology Group, Shandong Linghua Group, Vedan, Shandong Shenghua Group, Jianyang Wuyi MSG Co.,Ltd,. This report segments the global monosodium glutamate market as follows:


Monosodium Glutamate Market for Food Processing Industry, Restaurants, and Institutional Food Service Applications: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2014 – 2020 The report covers forecast and analysis for the monosodium glutamate market on a global and regional level. The study provides historic data of 2014 along with a forecast from 2015 to 2020 based on both volume (kilo tons) and revenue (USD million). The study includes drivers and restraints of the monosodium glutamate market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the monosodium glutamate market on a global level. In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view on the monosodium glutamate, we have included a detailed competitive scenario and product portfolio of key vendors. To understand the competitive landscape in the market, an analysis of Porter’s five forces model for the monosodium glutamate market has also been included. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein application segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness. The study provides a decisive view on the monosodium glutamate market by segmenting the market based on applications and regions. All the segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market is estimated from 2014 to 2020. Based on application, monosodium glutamate market can segmented into food processing industry (snacks, canned food, frozen food, others), restaurants, and institutional food service. The regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa with its further bifurcation into major countries including U.S., Germany, France, UK, China, Japan, India and Brazil. The report covers detailed competitive outlook including the market share and company profiles of the key participants operating in the global monosodium glutamate market includeFufeng Group, Meihua Group, Ajinomoto, Lotus Group,  Ningxia Eppen, Shandong Qilu Biotechnology Group, Shandong Linghua Group, Vedan, Shandong Shenghua Group, Jianyang Wuyi MSG Co.,Ltd,. This report segments the global monosodium glutamate market as follows:


Monosodium Glutamate Market for Food Processing Industry, Restaurants, and Institutional Food Service Applications: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2014 – 2020 The report covers forecast and analysis for the monosodium glutamate market on a global and regional level. The study provides historic data of 2014 along with a forecast from 2015 to 2020 based on both volume (kilo tons) and revenue (USD million). The study includes drivers and restraints of the monosodium glutamate market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the monosodium glutamate market on a global level. In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view on the monosodium glutamate, we have included a detailed competitive scenario and product portfolio of key vendors. To understand the competitive landscape in the market, an analysis of Porter’s five forces model for the monosodium glutamate market has also been included. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein application segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness. The study provides a decisive view on the monosodium glutamate market by segmenting the market based on applications and regions. All the segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market is estimated from 2014 to 2020. Based on application, monosodium glutamate market can segmented into food processing industry (snacks, canned food, frozen food, others), restaurants, and institutional food service. The regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa with its further bifurcation into major countries including U.S., Germany, France, UK, China, Japan, India and Brazil. The report covers detailed competitive outlook including the market share and company profiles of the key participants operating in the global monosodium glutamate market includeFufeng Group, Meihua Group, Ajinomoto, Lotus Group,  Ningxia Eppen, Shandong Qilu Biotechnology Group, Shandong Linghua Group, Vedan, Shandong Shenghua Group, Jianyang Wuyi MSG Co.,Ltd,. This report segments the global monosodium glutamate market as follows:


Dhiman S.S.,Biotechnology Group | Garg G.,Kurukshetra University | Sharma J.,Kurukshetra University | Mahajan R.,Kurukshetra University | Methoxy,Environment and Resource Management Group
New Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Critical factors for xylanase production of Bacillus stearothermophilus under batch fermentation and for clarification of citrus fruit juice using this xylanase were optimized through central composite design of response surface methodology. Statistical approach resulted in an increase of 1.19-fold in xylanase yield over conventional method. Model equation for juice clarification included independent variables viz. temperature, incubation time and enzyme dose to study the dependent variables such as yield, acidic neutrality and filterability etc. Coefficient of determination, R 2 for enzyme production model and for different juice properties were in accordance with the linearity of the model. On the basis of the contour plots the optimum enzyme dose was 12.5IU/g of xylanase. Enzymatic treatment has resulted in the improvement of twofold in the release of reducing sugars and 52.97% in juice yield, whereas 35.34% reduction in turbidity was observed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Garg G.,Kurukshetra University | Dhiman S.S.,Biotechnology Group | Mahajan R.,Kurukshetra University | Kaur A.,Kurukshetra University | Sharma J.,Kurukshetra University
New Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Pretreatment of wheat straw pulp using cellulase-free xylanase produced from Bacillus stearothermophilus SDX at 60°C for 120min resulted in 4.75% and 22.31% increase in brightness and whiteness, respectively. Enzyme dose of 10U/g of oven dried pulp at pH 9 decreased the kappa number and permanganate number by 7.14% and 5.31%, respectively. Further chlorine dioxide and alkaline bleaching sequences (CDED1D2) resulted in 1.76% and 3.63% increase in brightness and whiteness, respectively. Enzymatic prebleaching of pulp decreased 20% of chlorine consumption without any decrease in brightness. Improvement in various pulp properties like viscosity, burst factor, burstness, breaking length, double fold, gurley porosity, tear factor, and tearness were also observed after bleaching of xylanase treated wheat straw pulp. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Zahra S.,Biotechnology Group | Abbas S.S.,Biotechnology Group | Mahsa M.-T.,Biotechnology Group | Mohsen N.,Biotechnology Group
Waste Management | Year: 2010

In this study, biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) by isolated landfill-source fungi was evaluated in a controlled solid waste medium. The fungi, including Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus and Fusarium solani, were isolated from samples taken from an aerobic aged municipal landfill in Tehran. These fungi could degrade LDPE via the formation of a biofilm in a submerged medium. In the sterilized solid waste medium, LPDE films were buried for 100 days in a 1-L flask containing 400 g sterile solid waste raw materials at 28 °C. Each fungus was added to a separate flask. The moisture content and pH of the media were maintained at the optimal levels for each fungus. Photo-oxidation (25 days under UV-irradiation) was used as a pretreatment of the LDPE samples. The progress of the process was monitored by measurement of total organic carbon (TOC), pH, temperature and moisture. The results obtained from monitoring the process using isolated fungi under sterile conditions indicate that these fungi are able to grow in solid waste medium. The results of FT-IR and SEM analyses show that A. terreus and A. fumigatus, despite the availability of other organic carbon of materials, could utilize LDPE as carbon source. While there has been much research in the field of LDPE biodegradation under solid conditions, this is the first report of degradation of LDPE by A. fumigatus. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yadav R.D.,Ballarpur Industries Ltd BILT | Chaudhry S.,Kurukshetra University | Dhiman S.S.,Biotechnology Group
BioResources | Year: 2010

Mixed hardwood chips were treated with lignin-degrading fungi to study the effect of fungal pretreatment on bleaching characteristics of kraft pulp. Pretreated wood chips were subjected to reduced active alkali doses in comparison to untreated chips. Comparable results were obtained for pretreated chips with reduced alkali dose as was obtained with higher dose of alkali in case of untreated chips. Fungal treatment made the process more energy-efficient, and 4.8% less chlorine was consumed in comparison to the control process. Pretreatment with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora was responsible for reduction of 4.7% in lignin contents, 14.3% permanganate number, and overall reduction of 15.5 kg/T of Cl 2s consumption. The pollution load in terms of COD and BOD at the C D stage was reduced by 32.6% and 41.5% respectively, whereas 12% reduction in AOX compounds was observed in effluent of pretreated pulp.

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