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Yaoundé, Cameroon

Simo C.,P.A. College | Djocgoue P.F.,P.A. College | Mbouobda H.D.,P.A. College | Mbouobda H.D.,University of Bamenda | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology Journal | Year: 2011

The black pod disease caused by P. megakarya is responsible for about 30% of cocoa production loss in Cameroon and Polyphenoloxidase (PPO), which contribute to plant resistance, were analysed in response to stress due to cocoa pod inoculation by mycelium of Phytophthora megakarya. Two cocoa plant (Theobrorna cacao) hybrid families (F79: ♀T79/467 x ♂SNK13; F13: ♀SNEC13x ♂T79/467) were used in this study. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the specific activities of PPO in the healthy, scarified and inoculated pods were realised in function of the productivity and the necrosis surface. Finally the study of the resistance transmission of PPO vis-à-vis P. megakarya from parents to offsprings was also performed. In the ionically bounded (I) fractions, the increase in the activities of PPO is correlated with tolerance rate of genotypes within the two hybrid families. Heritability of the reciprocal crossing of the PPO activities is higher for the (I) fractions (0.88 for F79 and 0.83 for FI 3) and do not show any significant difference for the two families suggesting the absence of a maternal effect. The use of PPO as a biochemical marker has permitted to reveal that the bonded PPO are more heritable than the soluble ones and these bonded PPO are seemingly good indicators of the resistance. Over all, the present study has enabled to classify the different groups of genotypes as tolerant and less tolerant and so, a large scale distribution of the tolerant and productive genotypes to cocoa farmers will be beneficial. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Djocgoue P.F.,P.A. College | Simo C.,P.A. College | Mbouobda H.D.,P.A. College | Boudjeko T.,Biotechnology Center Nkolbisson | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

The cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao L.) is a cash crop cultivated in humid tropical regions. The commercialization of cocoa seeds constitutes a major source of income to farmers in the producing countries. Nevertheless, a major limiting factor to the culturing of this plant in Cameroon is black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya. The vulnerability of T. cacao to P. megakarya was assessed in two hybrid populations (F79: ♀T79/467×♂SNK13; F13: ♀SNK13×♂T79/467) through the daily measurement of the necrotic lesion on the pods after artificial inoculation. The parental and progeny productivity was also assessed through measurements of the weight of 100 cocoa seeds. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the necrotic lesion on the pods taking into consideration the development of necrosis during time showed that 95.73% and 94.48% of the total variability expressed by axes 1 and 2 enables the classification of the different genotypes into 4 and 5 groups for F79 and F13 families, respectively. In addition, ANOVA results indicated that necrotic surfaces showed a significant effect of day after inoculation and genotype to all the progeny (P<0.001). Heritability of the two reciprocal crossings is high (0.81 for F79 and 0.91 for F13) and does not show a significant difference, suggesting the absence of maternal effects in the developmental character of necrosis. The hybrids F7902, F7909, F7917, F7921, F7925, F7928, F1304, F1307, F1309, F1314, F1318, F1323 and F1325 showed a higher productivity and less development of necrosis than those of the best parents. They can thus be considered as the best genotypes. These results suggest that a large scale distribution of these genotypes to farmers will permit a short term improvement of cocoa yield in Cameroon. Source

Ngwa E.N.,Biotechnology Center Nkolbisson | Kengne A.-P.,Non Communicable Diseases Research Unit | Kengne A.-P.,University of Cape Town | Tiedeu-Atogho B.,Biotechnology Center Nkolbisson | And 3 more authors.
Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome | Year: 2015

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major and fast growing public health problem. Although obesity is considered to be the main driver of the pandemic of T2DM, a possible contribution of some environmental contaminants, of which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) form a particular class, has been suggested. POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes which enable them to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bio accumulate in human and animal tissue, bio accumulate in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between persistent organic pollutants and diabetes risk. These findings have been replicated in experimental studies both in human (in-vitro) and animals (in-vivo and in-vitro), and patho-physiological derangements through which these pollutants exercise their harmful effect on diabetes risk postulated. This review summarizes available studies, emphasises on limitations so as to enable subsequent studies to be centralized on possible pathways and bring out clearly the role of POPs on diabetes risk. © 2015 Ngwa et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Boudjeko T.,Biotechnology Center Nkolbisson | Boudjeko T.,University of Yaounde I | Ngomoyogoli J.E.K.,Biotechnology Center Nkolbisson | Woguia A.L.,University of Yaounde I | Yanou N.N.,University of Ngaoundere
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: High fat diet is known to induce oxidative stress and abnormal changes in lipid metabolism. Many traditional plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities, improving on oxidative status and lipid profile. In this paper, we characterized and examined the antioxidative properties of the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas. We also evaluated their effect on lipid profile in the plasma and liver of experimental rats placed on a high fat diet. Methods: For a partial characterization, the qualitative and quantitative analyses of storage proteins, dietary fibre and polyphenol content were evaluated. Four extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and 0.1 N HCl) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and scavenging activities. The effect on lipid profile was evaluated after the administration of the crude extracts to albino rats placed on a high fat diet. Results: Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65 mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30 mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30 mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level.Conclusion: These results show that the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas possess antioxidant properties with an effect on blood glucose level and lipid profile. © 2013 Boudjeko et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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