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Mahami T.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute BNARI | Goulder R.,University of Hull
West African Journal of Applied Ecology

Vascular hydrophytes were shown to have the potential to be useful for straightforward, low-technology, bioassay of fresh water quality, specifically in relation to phosphate enrichment by effluent from sewage treatment works. Field-collected shoots of Elodea canadensis and Callitriche sp. made greater extension growth when incubated in canal water from downstream of discharges, indicating enrichment. This was supported by phosphate analysis and by conventional Selenastrum bioassay. Growth of shoots incubated in phosphate-augmented water from upstream of discharges equalled that in downstream water, confirming that bioassay, using vascular plants, is effective in detecting enrichment by phosphate. Source

Mahami T.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute BNARI | Adu-Gyamfi A.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute BNARI | Owulah C.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute BNARI
African Journal of Microbiology Research

This study evaluated the effect of frequently used veterinary wound antimicrobials for their efficacy in killing mature in vitro Staphylococcus aureus biofilms and inhibiting planktonic cells. The predictiveness of the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) assay as a tool for antibiotic susceptibility testing was also assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBEC of tetracycline, tetracycline-based commercial wound spray, silver nitrate, gentian violet, iodine tincture, sucrose and a laboratory mixture of sucrose and gentian violet were determined. Whereas low concentrations of all these antimicrobials except sucrose inhibited planktonic S. aureus, only silver nitrate eradicated the biofilm phenotype. Silver nitrate at a Ag+ concentration of 4 x MIC showed 100% efficiency of removal or 7.70-log reduction of S. aureus biofilm cells, 1% gentian violet gave a significant reduction (55% or 0.35-log, P = 0.046) and 120% sucrose in gentian violet also showed a significant percentage reduction of 89.71% (0.98-log, P = 0.001). However, 120% sucrose and 2% iodine tincture reduced biofilms insignificantly (28.26% or 0.14-log, P = 0.098) and (34.78% or 0.18-log, P = 0.065), respectively. Based on the national committee for clinical laboratory brake-points, S. aureus biofilms lacked sensitivity to tetracycline and the tetracycline base wound spray. In conclusion, the antibiofilm properties of Ag+ observed in this study may improve the success rate in treating clinical biofilm-associated S. aureus wound infections if the MBEC assay is applied to select appropriate concentrations. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source

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