Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute

Legon, Ghana

Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute

Legon, Ghana
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Nunekpeku W.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute | Amoatey H.M.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute | Amoatey H.M.,University of Ghana | Oduro V.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
West African Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2013

Reproductive behaviour of two cultivars (AF and AN) and seven breeding lines (BA, AS, LA, BS-1, HO-008, ME and SE) of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was studied to obtain information pertaining to flowering habits and other reproductive characteristics of these potential parents required for future hybridization programmes. The accessions were grown on the Research Farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute in the coastal savanna agro-ecological zone of Ghana between April 2008 and December 2009. For each accession, 40 stem cuttings, each bearing five to eight nodes, were prepared from the mid-section of healthy cassava stems and planted at a spacing of 1.5 m x 1.0 m while accessions were separated by a distance of 2 m. Ten plants were tagged per accession for the collection of data on key reproductive characteristics. All accessions flowered, suggesting that flower production may not be a limiting factor under the prevailing climatic conditions. Light microscopy revealed that one accession (BA) produced dysfunctional male flowers which were devoid of pollen. Mean days to flowering and fruiting varied significantly (P < 0.05) among the accessions, indicating the need to use different planting dates for different accessions to ensure synchronization of flowering. The accessions also differed significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to plant height at various levels of branching, as well as number of inflorescences, staminate and pistillate flowers, and fruit produced per branching level. There was also variation in percent seed set, embryo formation and fruit drop. The extensive variability observed among the accessions provides breeders with immense opportunities for carrying out cross combinations to generate new genotypes to meet specific objectives.

Charlwood J.D.,MOZDAN Mozambican Danish Rural Malaria Initiative | Tomas E.V.,MOZDAN Mozambican Danish Rural Malaria Initiative | Egyir-Yawson A.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute | Kampango A.A.,MOZDAN Mozambican Danish Rural Malaria Initiative | Pitts R.J.,Vanderbilt University
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2012

Mortality rates, determined by dissection, of predominantly M form female Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) were estimated. Mosquitoes were collected in tent traps and light traps in an irrigation project village in Ghana in June and July 2010, when much of the area was flooded. Both M and S form larvae were collected from rice fields (74 of 80 specimens were M form). Adults were collected in equal proportions from the two traps (90 of 107 specimens from the light trap and 106 of 116 specimens from the tent trap were M form). During the study, collection numbers rose from 105 to 972 per night. A total of 1787 of the 15 431 An. gambiae collected were dissected. Of these, 953 (53%) were found to have taken their first bloodmeal, either as virgins or following mating. The age profiles of mosquitoes collected alive and dead, respectively, were similar. Eighteen of 2933 (0.61 ± 0.49%) specimens were found to be positive for sporozoites in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lagged cross correlations among the different age groups implied that the mosquitoes fed on days 2 and 4 following emergence prior to oviposition and every 2.65 ± 0.17 days thereafter. The best model to describe the observed population patterns implied a daily mortality of 84%. The results are discussed in relation to possible mosquito control measures for the village. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

Danso K.E.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute | Azu E.,University of Ghana | Elegba W.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute | Asumeng A.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2011

An effective sterilisation regime and protocol for subsequent plantlet regeneration from bud explants was developed for sugarcane cultivars, Ragna, Natal Coimbatore 339 (NCo339) and local sugarcane cultivar (LSC). Double sterilisation with 0.2 and 0.1% mercuric chloride for 15 minutes and 5 minutes respectively resulted in 90% decontamination frequency. However, post sterilisation survival on MS medium amended with 30g/l sucrose, 5mg/l BAP, 2mg/l IAA, 2mg/l GA3 and 3g/l activated charcoal required the incorporation of 200μg/ml amphotericin B and 100μg/ml cefotaxime indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. The culture of double sterilised bud explants of local sugarcane cultivar, Ragna and NCo 339 in the presence of the antibiotics resulted in single or multiple shoot development. These shoots developed roots on MS medium supplemented with 5mg/l NAA. Additionally, in vitro conserved plantlets used as explants also developed multiple shoots. Post-flask acclimatization was independent of age of plantlets. The protocol for effective sterilisation and subsequent successful regeneration of plantlets from bud explants once standardized can be utilized for rapid multiplication and dissemination of newly-released varieties and disease-free stock for farmers. © IJIB, All rights reserved.

Nikiema J.,International Water Management Institute | Cofie O.,International Water Management Institute | Asante-Bekoe B.,International Water Management Institute | Otoo M.,International Water Management Institute | Adamtey N.,Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute
Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2014

Market studies in Ghana have revealed a potential for composted or cocomposted fecal matter as nutrient source inputs for agricultural production. To increase the marketability of such products, high nutrient value and easier handling/transporting options are among the significant factors which drive demand. Pelletization is seen as a potentially interesting option to address these challenges. To preserve form stability of the pellet products, the addition of a binding material during the pelletization process is crucial. In Ghana, water, beeswax, clay, and cassava starch have been identified as locally available binding materials. A comparative assessment of these materials as a premier binder suitable for pelletization was performed based on predefined criteria. Quantitative criteria considered included the total amounts available, the seasonal variation during the year and cost. Qualitative criteria such as handling and storage conditions, ease of use during pelletization, and the binding ability were also evaluated. Based on this assessment, clay and cassava-based starch were selected as the most promising binding agents. Currently, clay is abundant in Ghana and this may suggest a guarantee for consistent and stable supply over coming years. However, from the perspective of cassava-based starch, this situation depicts limited production of starch and competition on the local markets. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 504-511, 2014 © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.

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