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Anees M.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Tronsmo A.,Biotechnology and Food Science | Edel-Hermann V.,University of Burgundy | Hjeljord L.G.,Biotechnology and Food Science | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to characterize sixteen isolates of Trichoderma originating from a field of sugar beet where disease patches caused by Rhizoctonia solani were observed. Use of both molecular and morphological characteristics gave consistent identification of the isolates. Production of water-soluble and volatile inhibitors, mycoparasitism and induced systemic resistance in plant host were investigated using in vitro and in vivo tests in both sterilized and natural soils. This functional approach revealed the intra-specific diversity as well as biocontrol potential of the different isolates. Different antagonistic mechanisms were evident for different strains. The most antagonistic strain, T30 was identified as Trichoderma gamsii. This is the first report of an efficient antagonistic strain of T. gamsii being able to reduce the disease in different conditions. The ability to produce water-soluble inhibitors or coil around the hyphae of the pathogen in vitro was not related to the disease reduction in vivo. Additionally, the strains collected from the high disease areas in the field were better antagonists. The antagonistic activity was not characteristic of a species but that of a population. © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Source


Panayiotidou L.,University of Cyprus | Drouza C.,Biotechnology and Food Science | Arabatzis N.,University of Cyprus | Lianos P.,Technological Educational Institute of Patra | And 4 more authors.
Polyhedron | Year: 2013

Twelve Pr3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+ and Dy3+ complexes of N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene) picolinohydrazonate (phzp-) were synthesized by the Ln3+ assisted hydrolysis of 3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine. Crystallographic characterization of Pr3+, Sm3+ and Eu3+ hydrazonate complexes with nitrate or trifluoroacetyleacetonate co-ligands shows them to have binuclear structures with a planar Ln2O2 core and the ligand to be in its mono-anionic form. Exception is the Pr 3+ complex with nitrate co-ligand, which is a mononuclear species containing the neutral hydrazone. Paramagnetic 1D 1H and 2D gCOSY and gNOESY-gEXSY 1H NMR spectroscopies revealed the presence of different isomers exhibiting a sterically controlled fluxional behavior. In addition, phzp- significantly enhances the luminescence of Eu 3+ and Tb3+. Magnetic measurements show antiferromagnetic coupling between the Ln3+ ions in the dinuclear complexes. The structural characterization of the complexes in both solid state and solution show the versatility of phzp- ligand to adopt various ligating motifs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Pfeifer M.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Kugler K.G.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Sandve S.R.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Zhan B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Science (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2014

Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Source


Pfeifer M.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Kugler K.G.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Sandve S.R.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Zhan B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Source

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