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Cundinamarca, Colombia

Smith A.,Biotechnology and Bioindustry Center | Beltran C.A.,Biotechnology and Bioindustry Center | Kusunoki M.,Biotechnology and Bioindustry Center | Cotes A.M.,Biotechnology and Bioindustry Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Twenty-one isolates of Trichoderma spp. were collected from eight states in Colombia and characterized based on the 5′ end of the translation elongation factor-1α (EF1-α1) gene and RNA polymerase II gene encoding the second largest protein subunit (RPB2) by using mixed primers. Seven species of soil-dwelling Trichoderma were found: T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. asperellum, T. spirale, T. harzianum, T. brevicompactum and T. longibrachiatum. Species identifications based on the EF1-α1 gene were consistent with those obtained from the RPB2 gene. Phylogenetic analyses with high bootstrap values supported the validity of the identification of all isolates. These results suggest that using the combination of the genes EF1-α1 and RPB2 is highly reliable for molecular characterization of Trichoderma species. Trichoderma asperellum Th034, T. atroviride Th002 and T. harzianum Th203 prevented germination of more than 70 % of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in bioassay tests and are promising biological control agents. No relationship between mycelium growth rate and parasitism level was found. © 2012 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan.


Henderson G.,Agresearch Ltd. | Cox F.,Agresearch Ltd. | Ganesh S.,Agresearch Ltd. | Jonker A.,Agresearch Ltd. | And 151 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2015

Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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