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Tallinn, Estonia

Moora M.,University of Tartu | Berger S.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Davison J.,University of Tartu | Opik M.,University of Tartu | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2011

Aim The biogeography of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is poorly understood, and consequently the potential of AM fungi to determine plant distribution has been largely overlooked. We aimed to describe AM fungal communities associating with a single host-plant species across a wide geographical area, including the plant's native, invasive and experimentally introduced ranges. We hypothesized that an alien AM plant associates primarily with the geographically widespread generalist AM fungal taxa present in a novel range. Location Europe, China. Methods We transplanted the palm Trachycarpus fortunei into nine European sites where it does not occur as a native species, into one site where it is naturalized (Switzerland), and into one glasshouse site. We harvested plant roots after two seasons. In addition, we sampled palms at three sites in the plant's native range (China). Roots were subjected to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 454 sequencing of AM fungal sequences. We analysed fungal communities with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination and cluster analysis and studied the frequency of geographically widespread fungal taxa with log-linear analysis. We compared fungal communities in the roots of the palm with those in resident plants at one site in the introduced range (Estonia) where natural AM fungal communities had previously been studied. Results We recorded a total of 73 AM fungal taxa. AM fungal communities in the native and introduced ranges differed from one another, while those in the invasive range contained taxa present in both other ranges. Geographically widespread AM fungal taxa were over-represented in palm roots in all regions, but especially in the introduced range. At the Estonian site, the palm was colonized by the same community of widespread AM fungal taxa as associate with resident habitat-generalist plants; by contrast, resident forest-specialist plants were colonized by a diverse community of widespread and other AM fungal taxa. Main conclusions AM fungal communities in the native, invasive and experimentally introduced ranges varied in taxonomic composition and richness, but they shared a pool of geographically widespread, non-host-specific taxa that might support the invasion of a generalist alien plant. Our dataset provides the first geographical overview of AM taxon distributions obtained using a single host-plant species. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Aaspollu A.,Tallinn University of Technology | Lillsaar T.,Tallinn University of Technology | Tummeleht L.,Tallinn University of Technology | Tummeleht L.,BiotaP LLC | And 3 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2011

Linking persons to crimes through DNA analysis is a well-established approach for more than 25 years. While enormous numbers of cases all over the world have been solved based on DNA, there is still need for additional tools for improvement in physical evidence choice and collection. Unfortunately not all samples collected from crime scenes, are suitable for linking persons to crimes due to the quantity and quality of the human DNA collected. Recent studies have shown personality of bacterial community on human body surface that may open new perspectives for forensics. The aim of the study was evaluation of variability of bacterial communities on skin of palm and fingers between and within individuals as well as transfer of bacterial DNA during contact to the object and persistence of community parameters during storage. Four volunteers were recruited and samples collected during 5 days and afterwards once per week during 1 month in the morning and in the afternoon by swabbing of palm and fingers after holding sterile object for 1. min with persons dominant hand. The samples were also collected from the handled objects, except the first object, in which surface was quartered and sampled by quarter zone with 1-week interval after storing the object at room temperature. DNA was extracted and metagenomic analysis of bacterial community using 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions was performed on Roche/454 platform. Our preliminary results are promising however foresee need for more elaborative studies to be able to implement this approach into the routine practice. © 2011 . Source

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