Chandrasekaran A.,BioTalentum Ltd |
Avci H.X.,BioTalentum Ltd |
Avci H.X.,University of Szeged |
Leist M.,University of Konstanz |
And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2016
Astrocytes have a central role in brain development and function, and so have gained increasing attention over the past two decades. Consequently, our knowledge about their origin, differentiation and function has increased significantly, with new research showing that astrocytes cultured alone or co-cultured with neurons have the potential to improve our understanding of various central nervous system diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, or Alexander disease. The generation of astrocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) opens up a new area for studying neurologic diseases in vitro; these models could be exploited to identify and validate potential drugs by detecting adverse effects in the early stages of drug development. However, as it is now known that a range of astrocyte populations exist in the brain, it will be important in vitro to develop standardized protocols for the in vitro generation of astrocyte subsets with defined maturity status and phenotypic properties. This will then open new possibilities for co-cultures with neurons and the generation of neural organoids for research purposes. The aim of this review article is to compare and summarize the currently available protocols and their strategies to generate human astrocytes from PSCs. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of human-induced PSCs derived astrocytes in disease modeling. © 2016 Chandrasekaran, Avci, Leist, Kobolákand Dinnyés.
PubMed | University of Aarhus, Copenhagen University, University Utrecht, BioTalentum Ltd. and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Molecular reproduction and development | Year: 2017
Derivation and stable maintenance of porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) is challenging. We herein systematically analyzed two piPSC lines, derived by lentiviral transduction and cultured under either leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF) conditions, to shed more light on the underlying biological mechanisms of porcine pluripotency. LIF-derived piPSCs were more successful than their FGF-derived counterparts in the generation of in vitro chimeras and in teratoma formation. When LIF piPSCs chimeras were transferred into surrogate sows and allowed to develop, only their prescence within the embryonic membranes could be detected. Whole transcriptome analysis of the piPSCs and porcine neonatal fibroblasts showed that they clustered together, but apart from the two pluripotent cell populations of early porcine embryos, indicating incomplete reprogramming. Indeed, bioinformatic analysis of the pluripotency-related gene network of the LIF- versus FGF-derived piPSCs revealed that ZFP42 (REX1) expression was absent in both piPSC-like cells, whereas it was expressed in the porcine inner cell mass at Day 7/8. A second striking difference was the expression of ATOH1 in piPSC-like cells, which was absent in the inner cell mass. Moreover, our gene expression analyses plus correlation analyses of known pluripotency genes identified unique relationships between pluripotency genes in the inner cell mass, which are to some extend, in the piPSC-like cells. This deficiency in downstream gene activation and divergent gene expression may be underlie the inability to derive germ line-transmitting piPSCs, and provides unique insight into which genes are necessary to achieve fully reprogrammed piPSCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Hall V.J.,Copenhagen University |
Kristensen M.,Copenhagen University |
Rasmussen M.A.,Copenhagen University |
Ujhelly O.,Biotalentum Ltd. |
And 4 more authors.
Cellular Reprogramming | Year: 2012
Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo and form chimeras. However, the lack of transgene silencing of exogenous DNA integrated into the genome and the inability of cells to proliferate in the absence of transgene expression are underlying reported problems, suggesting that reprogramming is not complete. The aim of the present study was to evaluate reprogramming events using a partially reprogrammed piPSC-like line expressing hOCT4, hNANOG, and hcMYC under tetracycline-regulated control to investigate the effects of these particular transgenes on the expression of the porcine endogenous pluripotency machinery. Endogenous and exogenous gene expression of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC was determined at passages 5, 10, 15, and 20, both in cells cultured at 1 μg/mL doxycycline or 4 μg/mL doxycycline. Our results revealed that endogenous genes are repressed by their transgene counterparts in culture and that lack of expression of the transgenes, SOX2 and KLF4 allows for expression of endogenous SOX2 and KLF4. Furthermore, we report that alternate endogenous transcripts for pNANOG, pSOX2, and pKLF4 can also be detected in the pig. Despite the ability for some endogenous genes to be expressed in these lines, the piPSC-like cells still cannot be maintained without doxycycline, indicating that the culture system of piPSCs may not be optimal or that the reprogramming factor combination used may not currently be optimal for maintaining pluripotency in the pig. This may help to explain the difficulties in producing stable piPSCs and bona fide embryonic stem cell lines in this species. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Raveh-Amit H.,Biotalentum Ltd |
Berzsenyi S.,Biotalentum Ltd |
Vas V.,Szent Istvan University |
Ye D.,Biotalentum Ltd |
And 3 more authors.
Biogerontology | Year: 2013
Aging is accompanied by reduced regenerative capacity of all tissues and organs and dysfunction of adult stem cells. Notably, these age-related alterations contribute to distinct pathophysiological characteristics depending on the tissue of origin and function and thus require special attention in a type by type manner. In this paper, we review the current understanding of the mechanisms leading to tissue-specific adult stem cell dysfunction and reduced regenerative capacity with age. A comprehensive investigation of the hematopoietic, the neural, the mesenchymal, and the skeletal stem cells in age-related research highlights that distinct mechanisms are associated with the different types of tissue stem cells. The link between age-related stem cell dysfunction and human pathologies is discussed along with the challenges and the future perspectives in stem cell-based therapies in age-related diseases. © 2013 The Author(s).
Cebrian-Serrano A.,Biotalentum Ltd. |
Stout T.,University Utrecht |
Dinnyes A.,Biotalentum Ltd. |
Dinnyes A.,University Utrecht |
Dinnyes A.,Szent Istvan University
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can now be derived from a tissue biopsy and represent a promising new platform for disease modelling, drug and toxicity testing, biomarker development and cell-based therapies for regenerative medicine. In regenerative medicine, large animals may represent the best models for man, and thereby provide invaluable systems in which to test the safety and the potential of iPSCs. Hence, testing iPSCs in veterinary species may serve a double function, namely, developing therapeutic products for regenerative medicine in veterinary patients while providing valuable background information for human clinical trials. The production of iPSCs from livestock or wild species is attractive because it could improve efficiency and reduce costs in various fields, such as transgenic animal generation and drug development, preservation of biological diversity, and because it also offers an alternative to xenotransplantation for in vivo generation of organs. Although the technology of cellular reprogramming using the so-called 'Yamanaka factors' is in its peak expectation phase and many concerns still need to be addressed, the rapid technical progress suggests that iPSCs could contribute significantly to novel therapies in veterinary and biomedical practice in the near future. This review provides an overview of the potential applications of iPSCs in veterinary medicine. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Varga M.,Eötvös Loránd University |
Sass M.,Eötvös Loránd University |
Papp D.,Eötvös Loránd University |
Takacs-Vellai K.,Eötvös Loránd University |
And 4 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2014
Regeneration is the ability of multicellular organisms to replace damaged tissues and regrow lost body parts. This process relies on cell fate transformation that involves changes in gene expression as well as in the composition of the cytoplasmic compartment, and exhibits a characteristic age-related decline. Here, we present evidence that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy - a lysosome-mediated self-degradation process of eukaryotic cells, which has been implicated in extensive cellular remodelling and aging - impairs the regeneration of amputated caudal fins in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Thus, autophagy is required for injury-induced tissue renewal. We further show that upregulation of autophagy in the regeneration zone occurs downstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling to protect cells from undergoing apoptosis and enable cytosolic restructuring underlying terminal cell fate determination. This novel cellular function of the autophagic process in regeneration implies that the role of cellular self-digestion in differentiation and tissue patterning is more fundamental than previously thought. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Pirity M.K.,Biotalentum Ltd |
Dinnyes A.,Biotalentum Ltd |
Dinnyes A.,Szent Istvan University
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2010
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are novel tools for biomedical research, with a promise for future regenerative medicine applications. Recently, Han and colleagues reported in Nature that T box gene 3 (Tbx3) can improve the quality of mouse iPSCs and increase their germline transmission efficacy. This observation contributes greatly to the improvement of iPSC technology and might be a step towards 'designer' reprogramming strategies by generating high quality iPSCs. Further studies comparing pluripotency regulation in different species, including that in human, will be necessary to verify the universal role of Tbx3 and the medical relevance of the observation. © 2010 BioMed Central Ltd.
Deshmukh R.S.,BioTalentum Ltd. |
Kovacs K.A.,BioTalentum Ltd. |
Dinnyes A.,BioTalentum Ltd. |
Dinnyes A.,Szent Istvan University |
Dinnyes A.,University Utrecht
Stem Cells International | Year: 2012
Development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using forced expression of specific sets of transcription factors has changed the field of stem cell research extensively. Two important limitations for research application of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), namely, ethical and immunological issues, can be circumvented using iPSCs. Since the development of first iPSCs, tremendous effort has been directed to the development of methods to increase the efficiency of the process and to reduce the extent of genomic modifications associated with the reprogramming procedure. The established lineage-specific differentiation protocols developed for ESCs are being applied to iPSCs, as they have great potential in regenerative medicine for cell therapy, disease modeling either for drug development or for fundamental science, and, last but not least, toxicity testing. This paper reviews efforts aimed at practical development of iPSC differentiation to neural/cardiac lineages and further the use of these iPSCs-derived cells for drug development and toxicity testing. © Copyright 2012 Rahul S. Deshmukh et al.
Pajer K.,University of Szeged |
Nemes C.,Biotalentum Ltd. |
Berzsenyi S.,Biotalentum Ltd. |
Kovacs K.A.,Biotalentum Ltd. |
And 5 more authors.
Experimental Neurology | Year: 2015
Human plexus injuries often include the avulsion of one or more ventral roots, resulting in debilitating conditions. In this study the effects of undifferentiated murine iPSCs on damaged motoneurons were investigated following avulsion of the lumbar 4 (L4) ventral root, an injury known to induce the death of the majority of the affected motoneurons. Avulsion and reimplantation of the L4 ventral root (AR procedure) were accompanied by the transplantation of murine iPSCs into the injured spinal cord segment in rats. Control animals underwent ventral root avulsion and reimplantation, but did not receive iPSCs. The grafted iPSCs induced an improved reinnervation of the reimplanted ventral root by the host motoneurons as compared with the controls (number of retrogradely labeled motoneurons: 503. ±. 38 [AR. +. iPSCs group] vs 48. ±. 6 [controls, AR group]). Morphological reinnervation resulted in a functional recovery, i.e. the grafted animals exhibited more motor units in their reinnervated hind limb muscles, which produced a greater force than that in the controls (50. ±. 2.1% vs 11.9. ±. 4.2% maximal tetanic tension [% ratio of operated/intact side]). Grafting of undifferentiated iPSCs downregulated the astroglial activation within the L4 segment. The grafted cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in the injured cord. The grafted iPSCs, host neurons and glia were found to produce the cytokines and neurotrophic factors MIP-1a, IL-10, GDNF and NT-4. These findings suggest that, following ventral root avulsion injury, iPSCs are able to induce motoneuron survival and regeneration through combined neurotrophic and cytokine modulatory effects. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
PubMed | BioTalentum Ltd., Hospital Duran i Reynals and Szent Istvan University
Type: | Journal: Stem cells international | Year: 2017
The cellular and molecular bases of neurological diseases have been studied for decades; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated. Compared with other disorders, diseases of the nervous system have been very difficult to study mainly due to the inaccessibility of the human brain and live neurons in vivo or in vitro and difficulties in examination of human postmortem brain tissue. Despite the availability of various genetically engineered animal models, these systems are still not adequate enough due to species variation and differences in genetic background. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed from patient somatic cells possess the potential to differentiate into any cell type, including neural progenitor cells and postmitotic neurons; thus, they open a new area to in vitro modeling of neurological diseases and their potential treatment. Currently, many protocols for generation of various neuronal subtypes are being developed; however, most of them still require further optimization. Here, we highlight accomplishments made in the generation of dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, the two subtypes most affected in Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases and indirectly affected in Huntingtons disease. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of hiPSC-derived neurons in the modeling and treatment of neurological diseases related to dopaminergic and cholinergic system dysfunction.