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ASHLAND, MA, United States

Osma J.F.,Rovira i Virgili University | Toca-Herrera J.L.,Biosurfaces | Rodriguez-Couto S.,Centro de estudios e investigaciones tecnicas de Gipuzkoa | Rodriguez-Couto S.,Ikerbasque
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

This study deals with the biotransformation products obtained from the transformation of the anthraquinonic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) by immobilised laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens. A decolouration percentage of 44% was obtained in 42. h. RBBR transformation products were investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum scan and High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Two compounds were identified as the transformation intermediates (m/. z 304.29 and m/. z 342.24) and other two as the final transformation products (m/. z 343.29 and m/. z 207.16). As a result a metabolic pathway for RBBR transformation by laccase was proposed. No backward polymerisation of the transformation products resulting in recurrent colouration was observed after laccase treatment of RBBR. It was also found that the biotransformation products of RBBR showed less phytotoxicity than the dye itself. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

BACKGROUND: Antibody screening and identification panels are generally limited by the natural antigenic phenotypes present in their source donor population. However, the recent ability to attach peptides to the surface of cells has opened up the opportunity to create red blood cells (RBCs) with antigen profiles specifically designed for antibody screening and identification in a target population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Clinically significant antibodies to variant glycophorins (GPs) such as GP.Mur are more commonly seen in certain Asian populations. Using peptides representative of the MNS antigens MUT and Mur, RBC antibody screening cells were created using KODE cell surface engineering constructs. MUT-, Mur-, and MUT+Mur-modified RBCs, known as kodecytes, were tested against monoclonal reagents and polyclonal sera with specificity for epitopes on GP.Mur-positive RBCs. RESULTS: Kodecytes retained their normal expression of intrinsic blood group antigens while expressing the new epitopes attached by KODE technology. The MUT, Mur, and MUT+Mur kodecytes, although unreactive with the various monoclonal reagents, were appropriately reactive with polyclonal sera containing antibodies reactive with GP.Mur-positive RBCs. CONCLUSIONS: This study used selected MUT and Mur peptides and KODE cell surface engineering technology to create MUT+Mur kodecytes suitable for the detection and identification of RBC antibodies in human serum or plasma. This technology has the potential to create a large range of specialized RBCs for antibody screening and identification. © 2009 American Association of Blood Banks.

Biosurfaces, Clemson University and Rhode Island Board Of Education | Date: 2014-06-02

The present invention is a bioactive, nanofibrous material construct which is manufactured using a unique electrospinning perfusion methodology. One embodiment provides a nanofibrous biocomposite material formed as a discrete textile fabric from a prepared liquid admixture of (i) a non-biodegradable durable synthetic polymer; (ii) a biologically active agent; and (iii) a liquid organic carrier. These biologically-active agents are chemical compounds which retain their recognized biological activity both before and after becoming non-permanently bound to the formed textile material; and will become subsequently released in-situ as discrete freely mobile agents from the fabric upon uptake of water from the ambient environment.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2014

PROJECT SUMMARY Cardiac valve repair or replacement is indicated when progression of degenerative disease or bacterial infection of the native valve results in valvular dysfunction, thereby impacting cardiac output. Both procedures require the use of a woven or knitted polyester material with an internal reinforcement (Teflon, silicone or metal) to either stabilize the native valve (annuloplasty ring) or to attach a prosthetic heart valve (sewing cuff). Bacterial infection (prosthetic valve endocarditis orPVE) is a major complication associated with implantation of these devices. Bacteremia seeded at the site prior to surgery or nosocomial infection acquired during the surgery or post-operatively are the primary routes of inoculation, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Since the functional parts of the mechanical valves are composed of metals, they are incapable of providing the environment for bacterial growth. Infection is typically localized to the prosthesis/tissue interface at the sewing

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 111.08K | Year: 2010

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Current gold standards for hemodialysis access, radial cephalic vein fistulas and autogenous saphenous veins, have significant problems associated with their use. Many patients do not have a healthy vein to spare due to disease progression or prior/future use for a different surgical procedure (i.e. for a distal or coronary bypass). These surgical procedures also require greater time than a prosthetic graft implant due to vein harvesting. Synthetic grafts have issues with patency and inability to provide instant access. Our hypothesis is that the next generation of prosthetic hemodialysis grafts should possess multiple structural and biological properties that mimic some of those processes inherent to native arteries in order to prevent these complications from occurring. The goal of the Phase I study is to develop a first of its kind hemodialysis access graft comprised of polyester (PET) and polyurethane (PU) blend via electrospinning technology (BioAccess). Incorporation of these polymers as this unique blend will impart both strength and compliance to the graft. Specific biologic agents for preventing thrombosis (recombinant hirudin or rHir), infection (Moxifloxacin) and hyperplasia (Paclitaxel), will be blended in the graft. The incorporation of these agents should aid in the healing of the graft by preventing acute thrombosis, chronic infection and stenosis of the conduits during the repeated cannulation of the graft. The specific objectives of our proposed study are to: 1) optimize electrospinning conditions for the nanofibrous BioAccess graft, 2) characterize physical, chemical and surface properties of the graft, 3) evaluate release pharmacokinetics of rHir, Moxifloxacin and Paclitaxel from the BioAccess graft via a stringent washing study and 4) examine antithrombotic, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative properties of the graft using established biologic assays. The overall annual cost of ESRD treatment in the US is 23 billion, which is projected to increase 3.6% every year. About 2 million patients worldwide (355,000, currently in US alone) will receive hemodialysis treatment by 2010. With increasing age of dialysis patients and higher occurrence of diabetes and obesity, there is an urgent need for hemodialysis grafts with immediate access and better healing properties. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) affects millions of people worldwide with the total cost of treatment in US alone standing at 23 billion. With increasing age, diabetes and obesity associated with the patients, there is a need for better hemodialysis access grafts that provide instant access and faster healing. The goal of this Phase I grant is to develop a novel hemodialysis graft from polyester (PET) and polyurethane (PU) through the process of electrospinning, incorporating antithrombotic (recombinant hirudin), antimicrobial and antineoplastic (Paclitaxel) agents directly into the fibrous (Moxifloxacin) construct. Our hypothesis is that the strength and elasticity of the polymers combined with the synergisticbiological effects of the selected drugs should lead to a synthetic graft with improved healing, better long-term patency and instant access.

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