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Schauer G.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Malarcher A.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mowery P.,Biostatistics Inc
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2016

Introduction: To understand changes occurring in nondaily smoking, we assessed differences in demographics and trends in nondaily smoking, by smoking frequency and amount. Methods: Participants were 13 966 adult nondaily cigarette smokers (NDS) age 18 years and older responding to the 2000-2012 US National Health Interview Survey, an annual, nationally-representative, cross-sectional, household interview survey. We created a nine-level smoking frequency- amount variable using tertile cut points from the number of days smoked in the past 30 (1-7, 8-14, 15-29 days) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (cpd; 1-2, 3-5, ≥6). We computed weighted frequencies by low-, moderate-, high-frequency use, by low-, moderate-, high-cpd amount, and by demographics. We estimated temporal trends using weighted least squares regression, and the association between groups and past-year quit attempts using logistic regression. Results: Overall prevalence of nondaily smoking among adults remained stable between 2000 to 2012 (P = .62). The most prevalent nondaily smoking frequency-amount groups were: smoking 15-29 days (in the past 30), 3-5 cpd (20.2%); 1-7 days, 1-2 cpd (19.7%); 15-29 days, 1-2 cpd (14.9%); and 15-29 days, ≥6 cpd (12.1%). From 2000 to 2012, low-cpd NDS (1-2 cpd) across moderate (8-14 days) and high (15-29 days) frequency groups increased (P < .01), while moderate frequency-moderate cpd (8-14 days, 3-5 cpd; P < .05) and high frequency-high cpd (15-29 days, ≥6 cpd; P < .01) NDS declined. Adjusting for demographics and year, the lowest frequency-amount groups had the lowest odds of past-year quit attempts. Conclusion: Changes occurred in NDS frequency and amount from 2000 to 2012, suggesting that more granular classifications may be important for monitoring NDS patterns. Implications: From 2000 to 2012, low-cpd NDS (1-2 cpd) across moderate- (8-14 days) and high-frequency (15-29 days) groups increased in the United States, while moderate frequency-moderate cpd (8-14 days, 3-5 cpd) and high frequency-high cpd (15-29 days, ≥6 cpd) NDS declined. Demographic differences were found across NDS frequency-amount groups. Adjusting for demographics and year, the lowest frequency-amount groups had the lowest odds of past-year quit attempts. These data can be used to further understand evolving patterns of NDS behavior, and to provide possible targeted groups-both by demographics and smoking frequency/amount-for future research and intervention. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015.

Mowery P.,Biostatistics Inc | Delnevo C.,The New School | Byron M.J.,Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies | Thornton-Bullock A.,American Legacy Foundation
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objectives. We examined patterns in cigar use among young adults, aged 18- 25 years, focusing on race/ethnicity and brand. Methods. We conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2008, using multivariate logistic regression to assess time trends in past 30 days cigar use, past 30 days use of a "top 5" cigar brand, cigar use intensity, and age at first cigar use. Results. Cigar use has increased among White non-Hispanic men aged 18 to 25 years, from 12.0% in 2002 to 12.7% in 2008. Common predictors of all outcomes included male gender and past 30 days use of cigarettes, marijuana, and blunts. Additional predictors of past 30 days cigar and "top 5" brand use included younger age, non-Hispanic Black or White race, lower income, and highest level of risk behavior. College enrollment predicted intensity of use and "top 5" brand use. Conclusions. Recent legislative initiatives have changed how cigars are marketed and may affect consumption. National surveys should include measures of cigar brand and little cigar and cigarillo use to improve cigar use estimates.

Bush T.,Alere Inc | Zbikowski S.,Alere Inc | Mahoney L.,Alere Inc | Deprey M.,Alere Inc | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental and Public Health | Year: 2012

Background. On April 1, 2009, the federal cigarette excise tax increased from 39 cents to $1.01 per pack. Methods. This study describes call volumes to 16 state quitlines, characteristics of callers and cessation outcomes before and after the tax. Results. Calls to the quitlines increased by 23.5% in 2009 and more whites, smokers 25 years of age, smokers of shorter duration, those with less education, and those who live with smokers called after (versus before) the tax. Quit rates at 7 months did not differ before versus after tax. Conclusions. Descriptive analyses revealed that the federal excise tax on cigarettes was associated with increased calls to quitlines but multivariate analyses revealed no difference in quit rates. However, more callers at the same quit rate indicates an increase in total number of successful quitters. If revenue obtained from increased taxation on cigarettes is put into cessation treatment, then it is likely future excise taxes would have an even greater effect. Copyright © 2012 Terry Bush et al.

Zhang L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Vickerman K.,Alere Inc | Malarcher A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mowery P.,Biostatistics Inc
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2014

Introduction: From March 19 through June 10, 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the first federally funded National Tobacco Education Campaign: Tips From Former Smokers (Tips). This study examined the campaign's impact on quitline callers' intermediate cessation outcomes. Methods: We used quitline data from 23 states to examine changes in enrollment, service utilization, quit attempts, and selfreported quitting for 7 days or longer during Tips versus a similar time period in 2011. We used multivariate models to examine the relationship between Tips exposure (measured as gross rating points [GRPs]) and cessation outcomes during the campaign in 2012. We also assessed whether the Tips campaign's impact differed by state tobacco control funding. Results: Compared with similar weeks in 2011, the number of quitline callers and callers who received counseling and/or nicotine replacement therapies increased by 88.6% (48,738 in 2011 vs. 91,911 during Tips) and 70.8% (40,546 in 2011 vs. 69,254 during Tips), respectively. Greater numbers of callers reported having made 24-hr quit attempts or quitting for 7 days or longer during the campaign. Higher Tips campaign GRPs were positively associated with quit attempts and with quitting for 7 days or longer among persons from states with higher tobacco control funding. In states with lower funding, the highest GRP group (2,000+ GRPs) had lower levels of cessation compared with the middle GRP group (1,200-1,999 GRPs). Conclusions: An evidence-based national tobacco education campaign with adequate reach and frequency can lead to substantial increases in quitline use and, to a lesser degree, intermediate cessation outcomes.

Caraballo R.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Holiday D.B.,Rti International | Stellman S.D.,Columbia University | Mowery P.D.,Biostatistics Inc | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2011

Background: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. Objective: To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Method: Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Results: Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. Conclusions: The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Impact: Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design. ©2011 AACR.

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