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PubMed | Mayo Medical School, Geriatric Research, Neurosurgery;, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics and. and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2016

Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, depression, and other illnesses. This studys objective was to determine the association of prior mild TBI with the subsequent diagnosis (that is, at least 1 year postinjury) of neurological or psychiatric disease.All studies from January 1995 to February 2012 reporting TBI as a risk factor for diagnoses of interest were identified by searching PubMed, study references, and review articles. Reviewers abstracted the data and assessed study designs and characteristics.Fifty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. A random effects meta-analysis revealed a significant association of prior TBI with subsequent neurological and psychiatric diagnoses. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the development of any illness subsequent to prior TBI was 1.67 (95% CI 1.44-1.93, p < 0.0001). Prior TBI was independently associated with both neurological (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.31-1.83, p < 0.0001) and psychiatric (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.50-2.66, p < 0.0001) outcomes. Analyses of individual diagnoses revealed higher odds of Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, mild cognitive impairment, depression, mixed affective disorders, and bipolar disorder in individuals with previous TBI as compared to those without TBI. This association was present when examining only studies of mild TBI and when considering the influence of study design and characteristics. Analysis of a subset of studies demonstrated no evidence that multiple TBIs were associated with higher odds of disease than a single TBI.History of TBI, including mild TBI, is associated with the development of neurological and psychiatric illness. This finding indicates that either TBI is a risk factor for heterogeneous pathological processes or that TBI may contribute to a common pathological mechanism.

PubMed | Biostatistics and Bioinformatics and.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical chemistry | Year: 2014

Failure to publish and selective reporting are recognized problems in the biomedical literature, but their extent in the field of diagnostic testing is unknown. We aimed to identify nonpublication and discrepancies between registered records and publications among registered test accuracy studies.We identified studies evaluating a tests accuracy against a reference standard that were registered in ClinicalTrials.gov between January 2006 and December 2010. We included studies if their completion date was set before October 2011, allowing at least 18 months until publication. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science and contacted investigators for publications.We included 418 studies, of which 224 (54%) had been published by mid-2013. Among studies that had been completed at least 30 months before our analyses, 45% were published within 30 months after their completion. Publication rates were high in studies registered after study completion (76%) and low for studies with an unknown (rather than completed) study status (36%). After we excluded these 2 categories, study duration was the only characteristic significantly associated with publication, with lower rates in studies lasting up to 1 year (39%) compared to studies of 13-24 months (62%) or longer (67%) (P = 0.01). In the 153 published studies that had been registered before completion, 49 (32%) showed discrepancies between the registry and publication regarding inclusion criteria (n = 19), test/threshold (n = 9), and outcomes (n = 32).Failure to publish and selective reporting are prevalent in test accuracy studies. Their registration should be further promoted among researchers and journal editors.

PubMed | Metabolism and Lipids and., Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology and., Metabolism and Lipids and Infectious Diseases and., Biostatistics and Bioinformatics and. and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2015

Tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a major global health problem. Individuals with tuberculosis disease commonly exhibit vitamin D deficiency, which may adversely affect immunity and the response to therapy.We determined whether adjunctive high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation improves outcomes in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis disease.The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, intent-to-treat trial in 199 individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis disease in Tbilisi, Georgia. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive oral vitamin D3 [50,000 IUs (1.25 mg) thrice weekly for 8 wk and 50,000 IU every other week for 8 wk] or a placebo concomitant with standard first-line antituberculosis drugs. The primary outcome was the time for the conversion of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) sputum culture to negative.Baseline characteristics between groups were similar. Most subjects (74%) were vitamin D deficient (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration <50 nmol/L). With vitamin D3, plasma 25(OH)D concentrations peaked at 250 nmol/L by 8 wk and decreased to 125 nmol/L at week 16. Adverse events and plasma calcium concentrations were similar between groups. In 192 subjects with culture-confirmed tuberculosis, an adjusted efficacy analysis showed similar median culture-conversion times between vitamin D3 and placebo groups [29 and 27 d, respectively; HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.18; P = 0.33). Eight-week culture-conversion rates were also similar (84.0% and 82.1% for vitamin D3 and placebo, respectively; P = 0.99).A high-dose vitamin D3 regimen safely corrected vitamin D deficiency but did not improve the rate of sputum Mtb clearance over 16 wk in this pulmonary tuberculosis cohort. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov at NCT00918086.

PubMed | Biostatistics and Bioinformatics and.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine | Year: 2014

The lifetime risk of tuberculosis (TB) for infected contacts is often mentioned to be 5-10%, but these estimates are based on studies conducted decades ago, and thus may not reflect current epidemiologic conditions.To estimate the risk of TB among contacts with evidence of infection and to compare this with estimates often stated in the literature.A retrospective cohort study was performed using records on contacts of pulmonary TB patients at the Public Health Service Amsterdam, 2002-2011. The Public Health Service Amsterdam TB electronic registration system identified TB cases during follow-up until October 2012; these were defined as coprevalent if diagnosed less than or equal to 180 days and incident if diagnosed greater than 180 days after TB diagnosis of index patient. Cumulative TB risk was estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves.Of 9,332 contacts of pulmonary TB patients, 4,774 were screened for latent TB infection (LTBI) of whom 739 (16%) had evidence of infection. Among these the 5-year Kaplan-Meier TB cumulative risk was 9.5% (95% confidence interval, 7.5-11.9). This varied by age: 33.3% of 36 contacts aged less than 5 years, 19.1% of 84 contacts aged 5-14 years, and 6.7% of 619 contacts aged greater than or equal to 15 years (log rank, P < 0.001). Of 739 contacts with evidence of infection, 57 had coprevalent TB and 14 developed incident TB. Of patients without coprevalent TB but with LTBI diagnosis, 45% received preventive therapy. Five-year risk of incident TB was 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.7) among contacts with LTBI who did not start preventive therapy.Five-year risk of TB among contacts with evidence of infection was higher compared with older estimates, and differed considerably by age. Incidence of TB among contacts with LTBI was low, suggesting limited impact may be expected of expanding preventive therapy.

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