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Rozzano, Italy

Carcelero E.,Hospital Clinic | Tuset M.,Hospital Clinic | Martin M.,Hospital Clinic | de Lazzari E.,Biostatistic Unit | And 3 more authors.
HIV Medicine | Year: 2011

Objectives: The aim of the study was to identify antiretroviral-related errors in the prescribing of medication to HIV-infected inpatients and to ascertain the degree of acceptance of the pharmacist's interventions. Methods: An observational, prospective, 1-year study was conducted in a 750-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital by a pharmacist trained in HIV pharmacotherapy. Interactions with antiretrovirals were checked for contraindicated combinations. Inpatient antiretroviral prescriptions were compared with outpatient dispensing records for reconciliation. Renal and hepatic function was monitored to determine the need for dose adjustments. Results: The prescriptions for 247 admissions (189 patients) were reviewed. Sixty antiretroviral-related problems were identified in 41 patients (21.7%). The most common problem was contraindicated combinations (n=20; 33.3%), followed by incorrect dose (n=10; 16.7%), dose omission (n=9; 15%), lack of dosage reduction in patients with renal or hepatic impairment (n=6; 10% and n=1; 1.7%, respectively), omission of an antiretroviral (n=6; 10%), addition of an alternative antiretroviral (n=5; 8.3%) and incorrect schedule according to outpatient treatment (n=3; 5%). Fifteen out of 20 errors were made during admission. A multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with an increased risk of antiretroviral-related problems included renal impairment [odds ratio (OR) 3.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-11.23], treatment with atazanavir (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.61-7.76) and admission to a unit other than an infectious diseases unit (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.28-4.88). Use of a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor was a protective factor (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.13-0.81). Ninety-two per cent of the pharmacist's interventions were accepted. Conclusion: Antiretroviral-related errors affected more than one-in-five patients. The most common causes of error were contraindicated or not recommended drug-drug combinations and dose-related errors. A clinical pharmacist trained in HIV pharmacotherapy could help to detect errors and reduce the duration of their effect. © 2011 British HIV Association.


Ceresoli G.L.,Cliniche Humanitas Gavazzeni | Zucali P.A.,Humanitas Cancer Center | Mencoboni M.,Ospedale Villa Scassi | Botta M.,Ospedale S. Spirito | And 14 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: The aim of this open label phase II study (NCT00407459) was to assess the activity of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor bevacizumab combined with pemetrexed and carboplatin in patients with previously untreated, unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods: Eligible patients received pemetrexed 500 mg m-2, carboplatin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) 5 mg ml-1 per minute and bevacizumab 15 mg kg-1, administered intravenously every 21 days for six cycles, followed by maintenance bevacizumab. The primary end point of the study was progression-free survival (PFS). A 50% improvement in median PFS in comparison with standard pemetrexed/platinum combinations (from 6 to 9 months) was postulated.Results: Seventy-six patients were evaluable for analysis. A partial response was achieved in 26 cases (34.2%, 95% CI 23.7-46.0%). Forty-four (57.9%, 95% CI 46.0-69.1%) had stable disease. Median PFS and overall survival were 6.9 and 15.3 months, respectively. Haematological and non-haematological toxicities were generally mild; however, some severe adverse events were reported, including grade 3-4 fatigue in 8% and bowel perforation in 4% of patients. Three toxic deaths occurred. Conclusion: The primary end point of the trial was not reached. However, due to the limitation of a non-randomised phase II design, further data are needed before drawing any definite conclusion on the role of bevacizumab in MPM. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.


Sissing L.,PROMEC Unit | Marnewick J.,Cape Peninsula University of Technology | De Kock M.,University of the Western Cape | Swanevelder S.,Biostatistic Unit | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2011

Widespread consumption of herbal teas has stimulated interest in their role as cancer preventive agents. The present investigation monitored the modulation of methylbenzylnitrosamine (MBN)-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis by rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) herbal and Camellia sinensis teas in male F344 rats. The tumor multiplicity was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by unfermented honeybush (45.5%), green (50%), and black (36%) teas, while the other teas exhibited weaker effects (<30% inhibition). The mean total papilloma size was reduced by unfermented rooibos (87%), unfermented honeybush (94%), and fermented honeybush (74%) due to the absence of large papillomas (>10 mm3). Reduction of the mean total papilloma number correlated with the total polyphenol (TPP) (r = 0.79; P < 0.02) and flavanol/proanthocyanidin (FLAVA) (r = 0.89; P < 0.008) intake (mg/100 g body weight) of the teas and the FLAVA (r = 0.89; P < 0.04) and flavonol/flavones/xanthones (r = 0.99; P < 0.002) intake when considering only the herbal teas. A daily TPP intake threshold of 7 mg/100 g body weight existed below where no inhibition of papilloma development was observed. Fermentation of herbal teas reduced the inhibitory effects on papilloma development associated with a reduction in the polyphenolic constituents. The inhibitory effect of herbal teas on papilloma development is associated with different flavonoid subgroups and/or combination thereof. Copyright © 2011, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Gaetani P.,Istituto Clinico Humanitas | Revay M.,Istituto Clinico Humanitas | Sciacca S.,Istituto Clinico Humanitas | Pessina F.,Istituto Clinico Humanitas | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences | Year: 2012

Aim. Mortality and morbidity due to brain injury in the elderly population is a growing clinical problem: among older patients, those >70 years have a considerably higher risk both in terms of mortality and morbidity. Thereafter, the reasons influencing outcome have not been clearly examined: in the present study we addressed these questions considering the main clinical characteristics exerting a significant impact on the outcome of patients aged > 70, with emphasis for the severity of brain injury and anticoagulant (CAW) treatments. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of 103 consecutive isolated head injury patients older than 70, admitted at our Department in the period November 2004-November 2009. The clinical variables considered were as follow: age, sex, type of TBI, GCS, pre-TBI use of anti-coagulants (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel), INR at admission (INR values were subdivided in values >1.25 as at risk for hemorrhagic events and <1.25 as normal), initial CT scan classification looking at the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (t-SAH) or mass lesions; the main outcome measure was the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Results. The most frequent cause of TBI was accidental fall (65%): 39 were in CAW therapies and in 36 cases the cause of falling down injury was recorded due to a sincopal event (arterial hypotension, atrial fibrillation); in the older patients an accidental fall is significantly related to the TBI, while in the patients aged 70-75 years, TBI is related to a traffic accident (P=0.002). Moreover the cause of TBI correlates with the CAW treatment, the accidental fall being significantly more frequent in patients in CAW treatment (P=0.003). Overall mortality rate is significantly related to an elevated INR class, to presence of t-SAH (16/50 patients) and subdural hematoma (26/46). Conclusion. The results of the present study show that in a population of patients aged > 70, TBI is a high risk event if patient has concurrent treatment with CAW therapies and if an accidental fall is the cause of TBI. In these cases the finding of t-SAH represents a high-risk parameter for mortality but not for morbidity.


Lorenzo V.,Hospital Universitario Of Canarias | Saracho R.,Hospital de Santiago | Zamora J.,Biostatistic Unit | Rufino M.,Hospital Universitario Of Canarias | Torres A.,Hospital Universitario Of Canarias
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2010

Background. Diabetes is the main cause of ESRD, and albuminuria is a major determinant of adverse renal outcome. Likewise, albuminuria is an intermediate risk factor of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in diabetic patients. Our aim was to compare the rate of renal decline in diabetic and non-diabetic CKD patients (GFR < 50 mlmin) with comparable levels of albuminuria.Methods. In this observational study, 333 patients (age 67 ± 15 years, 46 diabetics) were included during a 7.5-year period. The mean follow-up was 30 ± 18 months (range 4-79). The influence of study variables was evaluated applying a time-dependent Cox model and slope-based outcome using a linear regression model.Results. The diabetes condition was associated with adverse outcome in univariate analysis, and after adjusting for age, sex and systolic blood pressure. However, when controlling for albuminuria (a time-dependent covariate), diabetes did not show any association with outcome. In addition, the mean slope of renal decline was similar in diabetic and non-diabetic patients when controlling for albuminuria. The urinary albumin-creatinine ratio was a robust predictor of poor outcome in uni-and multivariate models. In the diabetic group, time-varying glycosilated haemoglobin did not influence renal outcome in the Cox model, and time-varying albuminuria remained a strong predictor of outcome.Conclusions. Diabetic patients have a poorer renal outcome, but at comparable levels of albuminuria renal decline is similar in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Albuminuria is a risk factor for renal decline, and the main target to delay progression in patients, diabetics or non-diabetics, with moderate to advanced CKD.

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