BioSTAT Consultants Inc.

Portage, MI, United States

BioSTAT Consultants Inc.

Portage, MI, United States
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Rausch-Derra L.C.,Aratana Therapeutics | Rhodes L.,Aratana Therapeutics | Freshwater L.,BioSTAT Consultants Inc. | Hawks R.,Ricerca Biosciences LLC
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2016

A new anti-inflammatory drug for pain (grapiprant) was recently shown to have minimal side effects following chronic (9-month) daily oral dose of 6 or 50 mg/kg suspension. The current study compares the pharmacokinetics of the formulation used in the chronic safety study to those of the tablet formulation that will be marketed upon FDA approval. Sixteen Beagle dogs were randomized to receive single doses of either 6 or 50 mg/kg grapiprant as both suspension and table formulations within a cross-over design with a 15-day washout. Clinical observations were vomiting in one high-dose suspension dog and loose stools in two dogs, one in each 6 mg/kg formulation group. For both formulations, grapiprant reached a maximum concentration within two hours. The tablet formulation had better bioavailability, with AUClast values 34% higher at 6 mg/kg and 64% higher at 50 mg/kg compared to the suspension. Results on Day 0 were similar to those reported on Day 15, suggesting little to no accumulation. Using conversion factors of 1.34 and 1.64, these findings suggest that the 6 and 50 mg/kg suspension doses are equivalent to 4.5 and 30 mg/kg tableted doses, respectively. Combining these findings with the 9-month safety study demonstrates that safety was evaluated at doses approximately 15-fold above the demonstrated therapeutic dose of 2 mg/kg and 10-fold over the ‘safety dose’, defined as the maximum dose a dog of any body weight could receive when dosed at 2 mg/kg with whole or half-tablets. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Edkins T.J.,Edkins Pharma Services LLC | Alhadeff J.A.,Center Valley | Kwok V.,WIL Research | Kalensky C.,WIL Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2012

This paper summarizes the development and validation of five enzyme activity methods to assess the specific inhibition of human endogenous matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-2 (gelatinase A), MMP-3 (stromelysin 1), MMP-8 (collagenase 2) and MMP-13 (collagenase 3) by anti-Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) antibodies in human serum. These MMPs are of interest since antibodies against a therapeutic enzyme may cross-react with, and inactivate, the MMPs. The validated methods utilize spiked exogenous individual MMPs added to serum to determine if the serum inhibits MMP enzyme activity. Factors evaluated and optimized during development include pH, reaction time and temperature, inhibitor concentration for the positive control, and substrate and serum concentration. Characteristics established during validation for each MMP activity inhibition method included intra- and inter-assay precision and recovery, recovery in the pooled normal human serum samples, bench-top stability at room temperature and on wet ice, and assay cut-point determination. Precision results ranged from ~1 to 12% CV, recoveries of the activities of the exogenous MMPs ranged from ~84 to 90% and cut-point values ranged from 67 to 91%. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | BioSTAT Consultants Inc., Ricerca Biosciences LLC and Aratana Therapeutics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2016

A new anti-inflammatory drug for pain (grapiprant) was recently shown to have minimal side effects following chronic (9-month) daily oral dose of 6 or 50mg/kg suspension. The current study compares the pharmacokinetics of the formulation used in the chronic safety study to those of the tablet formulation that will be marketed upon FDA approval. Sixteen Beagle dogs were randomized to receive single doses of either 6 or 50mg/kg grapiprant as both suspension and table formulations within a cross-over design with a 15-day washout. Clinical observations were vomiting in one high-dose suspension dog and loose stools in two dogs, one in each 6mg/kg formulation group. For both formulations, grapiprant reached a maximum concentration within two hours. The tablet formulation had better bioavailability, with AUC


Stump D.G.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Beck M.J.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Radovsky A.,WIL Research Laboratories LLC | Garman R.H.,Consultants in Veterinary Pathology Inc. | And 10 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2010

This study was conducted to determine the potential of bisphenol A (BPA) to induce functional and/or morphological effects to the nervous system of F1 offspring from dietary exposure during gestation and lactation according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for the study of developmental neurotoxicity. BPA was offered to female Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD(SD) rats (24 per dose group) and their litters at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, 75, 750, and 2250 ppm daily from gestation day 0 through lactation day 21. F1 offspring were evaluated using the following tests: detailed clinical observations (postnatal days [PNDs] 4, 11, 21, 35, 45, and 60), auditory startle (PNDs 20 and 60), motor activity (PNDs 13, 17, 21, and 61), learning and memory using the Biel water maze (PNDs 22 and 62), and brain and nervous system neuropathology and brain morphometry (PNDs 21 and 72). For F1 offspring, there were no treatment-related neurobehavioral effects, nor was there evidence of neuropathology or effects on brain morphometry. Based on maternal and offspring body weight reductions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity was 75 ppm (5.85 and 13.1 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively), with no treatment-related effects at lower doses or nonmonotonic dose responses observed for any parameter. There was no evidence that BPA is a developmental neurotoxicant in rats, and the NOAEL for developmental neurotoxicity was 2250 ppm, the highest dose tested (164 and 410 mg/kg/day during gestation and lactation, respectively). © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.


Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance by SAFC | Denton M.D.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Vidmar T.J.,BioSTAT Consultants Inc. | Elbekai R.H.,Parexel International
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2016

We recently conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 29 Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies conducted at our facility to determine how successful was the strategy of choosing the high dose of the 26-week studies based on an estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD). As a result of our publication, 2 counterviews were expressed. Both counterviews illustrate very valid points in their interpretation of our data. In this article, we would like to highlight clarifications based on several points and issues they have raised in their papers, namely, the dose-level selection, determining if MTD was exceeded in 26-week studies, and a discussion on the number of dose groups to be used in the studies. © The Author(s) 2015.


PubMed | BioSTAT Consultants Inc., Virginia Commonwealth University, Parexel International and BioReliance By SAFC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2016

We recently conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 29 Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies conducted at our facility to determine how successful was the strategy of choosing the high dose of the 26-week studies based on an estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD). As a result of our publication, 2 counterviews were expressed. Both counterviews illustrate very valid points in their interpretation of our data. In this article, we would like to highlight clarifications based on several points and issues they have raised in their papers, namely, the dose-level selection, determining if MTD was exceeded in 26-week studies, and a discussion on the number of dose groups to be used in the studies.


Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance By SAFC | Denton M.D.,BioReliance By SAFC | Vidmar T.,BioSTAT Consultants Inc | Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance By SAFC
International journal of toxicology | Year: 2014

Carcinogenicity studies have been performed in conventional 2-year rodent studies for at least 3 decades, whereas the short-term carcinogenicity studies in transgenic mice, such as Tg.rasH2, have only been performed over the last decade. In the 2-year conventional rodent studies, interlinked problems, such as increasing trends in the initial body weights, increased body weight gains, high incidence of spontaneous tumors, and low survival, that complicate the interpretation of findings have been well established. However, these end points have not been evaluated in the short-term carcinogenicity studies involving the Tg.rasH2 mice. In this article, we present retrospective analysis of data obtained from control groups in 26-week carcinogenicity studies conducted in Tg.rasH2 mice since 2004. Our analysis showed statistically significant decreasing trends in initial body weights of both sexes. Although the terminal body weights did not show any significant trends, there was a statistically significant increasing trend toward body weight gains, more so in males than in females, which correlated with increasing trends in the food consumption. There were no statistically significant alterations in mortality trends. In addition, the incidence of all common spontaneous tumors remained fairly constant with no statistically significant differences in trends. © The Author(s) 2014.


Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance by SAFC | Denton M.D.,BioReliance by SAFC | Vidmar T.J.,BioSTAT Consultants Inc. | Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance by SAFC
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2015

High doses in Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies are usually set at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), although this dose selection strategy has not been critically evaluated. We analyzed the body weight gains (BWGs), mortality, and tumor response in control and treated groups of 29 Tg.rasH2 studies conducted at BioReliance. Based on our analysis, it is evident that the MTD was exceeded at the high and/or mid-doses in several studies. The incidence of tumors in high doses was lower when compared to the low and mid-doses of both sexes. Thus, we recommend that the high dose in male mice should not exceed one-half of the estimated MTD (EMTD), as it is currently chosen, and the next dose should be one-fourth of the EMTD. Because females were less sensitive to decrements in BWG, the high dose in female mice should not exceed two-third of EMTD and the next dose group should be one-third of EMTD. If needed, a third dose group should be set at one-eighth EMTD in males and one-sixth EMTD in females. In addition, for compounds that do not show toxicity in the range finding studies, a limit dose should be applied for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).


Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance by SAFC | Denton M.D.,BioReliance by SAFC | Vidmar T.J.,BioSTAT Consultants Inc. | Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance by SAFC
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

The mechanistic relationship between increased food consumption, increased body weights, and increased incidence of tumors has been well established in 2-year rodent models. Body weight parameters such as initial body weights, terminal body weights, food consumption, and the body weight gains in grams and percentages were analyzed to determine whether such relationship exists between these parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.Rash2mice. None of these body weight parameters had any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.Rash2males, namely lung tumors, splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas, and Harderian gland tumors. These parameters also did not have any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of lung and Harderian gland tumors in females. However, in females, increased initial body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and increased terminal body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the incidence of splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas. In addition, increased body weight gains in grams and percentages had a statistically significant relationship with the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas in females, but not separately with splenic and nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas. © 2014 by The Author(s).


High doses in Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies are usually set at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), although this dose selection strategy has not been critically evaluated. We analyzed the body weight gains (BWGs), mortality, and tumor response in control and treated groups of 29 Tg.rasH2 studies conducted at BioReliance. Based on our analysis, it is evident that the MTD was exceeded at the high and/or mid-doses in several studies. The incidence of tumors in high doses was lower when compared to the low and mid-doses of both sexes. Thus, we recommend that the high dose in male mice should not exceed one-half of the estimated MTD (EMTD), as it is currently chosen, and the next dose should be one-fourth of the EMTD. Because females were less sensitive to decrements in BWG, the high dose in female mice should not exceed two-third of EMTD and the next dose group should be one-third of EMTD. If needed, a third dose group should be set at one-eighth EMTD in males and one-sixth EMTD in females. In addition, for compounds that do not show toxicity in the range finding studies, a limit dose should be applied for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies.

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