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Hooker S.B.,NASA | Morrow J.H.,Biospherical Instruments, Inc.
OCEANS 2013 MTS/IEEE - San Diego: An Ocean in Common | Year: 2013

NASA has a current and next-generation requirement to collect high-quality in-situ data for the vicarious calibration of ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. As aquatic remote sensing shifts from the legacy perspective of optically simplistic open oceans toward next-generation observations of myriad optically complex water masses in the coastal zone and polar regions, instrument deployments from small platforms are a necessity. In response to this need, NASA funded the development of a new approach to measuring light: the microradiometer. A microra-diometer consists of a photodetector, preamplifier with controllable gain, high resolution (24 bit) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), microprocessor, and an addressable digital port. The microradiometer interface electronics allows sensors that were not traditionally considered 'radiometers' to be treated in like fashion by the system electronics, greatly simplifying the addition of other detectors, such as temperature, water pressure, platform angle, or even supply voltage and current. This latter feature inherently leads to the concept of hybrid microradiometers, and because microradiometers simply plug onto the aggregator board stack, unique configurations of hybrid sensing and detecting capabilities are readily imagined. © 2013 MTS.

Bernhard G.,Biospherical Instruments, Inc.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

Spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiance has been observed near Barrow, Alaska (71°N, 157° W) between 1991 and 2011 with an SUV-100 spectroradiometer. The instrument was historically part of the US National Science Foundation's UV Monitoring Network and is now a component of NSF's Arctic Observing Network. From these measurements, trends in monthly average irradiance and their uncertainties were calculated. The analysis focuses on two quantities, the UV Index (which is affected by atmospheric ozone concentrations) and irradiance at 345 nm (which is virtually insensitive to ozone). Uncertainties of trend estimates depend on variations in the data due to (1) natural variability, (2) systematic and random errors of the measurements, and (3) uncertainties caused by gaps in the time series. Using radiative transfer model calculations, systematic errors of the measurements were detected and corrected. Different correction schemes were tested to quantify the sensitivity of the trend estimates on the treatment of systematic errors. Depending on the correction method, estimates of decadal trends changed between 1.5% and 2.9%. Uncertainties in the trend estimates caused by error sources (2) and (3) were set into relation with the overall uncertainty of the trend determinations. Results show that these error sources are only relevant for February, March, and April when natural variability is low due to high surface albedo. This method of addressing measurement uncertainties in time series analysis is also applicable to other geophysical parameters. Trend estimates varied between-14% and +5% per decade and were significant (95.45% confidence level) only for the month of October. Depending on the correction method, October trends varied between-11.4% and-13.7% for irradiance at 345 nm and between-11.7% and-14.1% for the UV Index. These large trends are consistent with trends in short-wave (0.3-3.0 μm) solar irradiance measured with pyranometers at NOAA's Barrow Observatory and can be explained by a change in snow cover over the observation period: analysis of pyranometer data indicates that the first day of fall when albedo becomes larger than 0.6 after snow fall, and remains above 0.6 for the rest of the winter, has advanced with a statistically significant trend of 13.6 ± 9.7 days per decade. © 2011 Author(s).

Bernhard G.,Biospherical Instruments, Inc. | Dahlback A.,University of Oslo | Fioletov V.,Environment Canada | Heikkila A.,Finnish Meteorological Institute | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

Greatly increased levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation were observed at thirteen Arctic and sub-Arctic ground stations in the spring of 2011, when the ozone abundance in the Arctic stratosphere dropped to the lowest amounts on record. Measurements of the noontime UV Index (UVI) during the low-ozone episode exceeded the climatological mean by up to 77% at locations in the western Arctic (Alaska, Canada, Greenland) and by up to 161% in Scandinavia. The UVI measured at the end of March at the Scandinavian sites was comparable to that typically observed 15-60 days later in the year when solar elevations are much higher. The cumulative UV dose measured during the period of the ozone anomaly exceeded the climatological mean by more than two standard deviations at 11 sites. Enhancements beyond three standard deviations were observed at seven sites and increases beyond four standard deviations at two sites. At the western sites, the episode occurred in March, when the Sun was still low in the sky, limiting absolute UVI anomalies to less than 0.5 UVI units. At the Scandinavian sites, absolute UVI anomalies ranged between 1.0 and 2.2UVI units. For example, at Finse, Norway, the noontime UVI on 30 March was 4.7, while the climatological UVI is 2.5. Although a UVI of 4.7 is still considered moderate, UV levels of this amount can lead to sunburn and photokeratitis during outdoor activity when radiation is reflected upward by snow towards the face of a person or animal. At the western sites, UV anomalies can be well explained with ozone anomalies of up to 41% below the climatological mean. At the Scandinavian sites, low ozone can only explain a UVI increase of 50-60 %. The remaining enhancement was mainly caused by the absence of clouds during the low-ozone period. © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Diaz S.,CONICET | Vernet M.,University of California at San Diego | Paladini A.,CONICET | Fuenzalida H.,University of Chile | And 9 more authors.
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2011

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) plays a key role in several biological functions, including human health. Skin exposure to UVR is the main factor in vitamin D photoconversion. There is also evidence relating low levels of vitamin D with certain internal cancers, mainly colon, breast and prostate, as well as other diseases. Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between the above-mentioned diseases and latitude, in accordance with the ultraviolet radiation latitudinal gradient. The aim of this study is to determine whether UV irradiance levels in the southern South America are sufficient to produce suitable levels of vitamin D year around. For this purpose, vitamin D photoconversion weighted-irradiance was analyzed between S.S. de Jujuy (24.17°S, 65.02°W) and Ushuaia (54° 50′S, 68° 18′W). In addition to irradiance, skin type and area of body exposed to sunlight are critical factors in vitamin D epidemiology. Due to a broad ethnic variability, it was assumed that the skin type in this region varies between II and V (from the most to the less sensitive). All sites except South Patagonia indicate that skin II under any condition of body area exposure and skin V when exposing head, hands, arms and legs, would produce suitable levels of vitamin D year round (except for some days in winter at North Patagonian sites). At South Patagonian sites, minimum healthy levels of vitamin D year round can be reached only by the more sensitive skin II type, if exposing head, hands, arms and legs, which is not a realistic scenario during winter. At these southern latitudes, healthy vitamin D levels would not be obtained between mid May and beginning of August if exposing only the head. Skin V with head exposure is the most critical situation; with the exception of the tropics, sun exposure would not produce suitable levels of vitamin D around winter, during a time period that varies with latitude. Analyzing the best exposure time during the day in order to obtain a suitable level of vitamin D without risk of sunburn, it was concluded that noon is best during winter, as determined previously. For skin type II when exposing head, exposure period in winter varies between 30 and 130 min, according to latitude, except for South Patagonian sites. During summer, noon seems to be a good time of day for short periods of exposure, while during leisure times, longer periods of exposure without risk of sunburn are possible at mid-morning and mid-afternoon. At 3 h from noon, solar zenith angles are almost the same for sites between the tropics and North Patagonia, and at 4 h from noon, for all sites. Then, in these cases, the necessary exposure periods varied slightly between sites, only due to meteorological differences. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies.

Hooker S.B.,NASA | Morrow J.H.,Biospherical Instruments, Inc. | Matsuoka A.,Laval University
Biogeosciences | Year: 2013

A next-generation in-water profiler designed to measure the apparent optical properties (AOPs) of seawater was developed and validated across a wide dynamic range of in-water properties. The new free-falling instrument, the Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS), was based on sensors built with a cluster of 19 state-of-the-art microradiometers spanning 320-780 nm and a novel kite-shaped backplane. The new backplane includes tunable ballast, a hydrobaric buoyancy chamber, plus pitch and roll adjustments, to provide unprecedented stability and vertical resolution in near-surface waters. A unique data set was collected as part of the development activity plus the first major field campaign that used the new instrument, the Malina expedition to the Beaufort Sea in the vicinity of the Mackenzie River outflow. The data were of sufficient resolution and quality to show that errors - more correctly, uncertainties - in the execution of data sampling protocols were measurable at the 1% and 1 cm level with C-OPS. A theoretical sensitivity analysis as a function of three water types established by the peak in the remote sensing reflectance spectrum, Rrs(λ), revealed which water types and which parts of the spectrum were the most sensitive to data acquisition uncertainties. Shallow riverine waters were the most sensitive water type, and the ultraviolet and near-infrared spectral end members, which are critical to next-generation satellite missions, were the most sensitive parts of the spectrum. The sensitivity analysis also showed how the use of data products based on band ratios significantly mitigated the influence of data acquisition uncertainties. The unprecedented vertical resolution provided high-quality data products, which supported an alternative classification capability based on the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd(λ). The Kd(320) and Kd(780) data showed how complex coastal systems can be distinguished two-dimensionally and how near-ice water masses are different from the neighboring open ocean. Finally, an algorithm for predicting the spectral absorption due to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), denoted αCDOM(λ), was developed using the Kd(320) /Kd(780) ratio, which was based on a linear relationship with respect to αCDOM(440). The robustness of the approach was established by expanding the use of the algorithm to include a geographically different coastal environment, the Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight, with no significant change in accuracy (approximately 98% of the variance explained). Alternative spectral end members reminiscent of next-generation (340 and 710 nm) as well as legacy satellite missions (412 and 670 nm) were also used to accurately derive αCDOM(440) from Kd(λ) ratios. © Author(s) 2013.

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