News Article | April 19, 2017
From the beginning, Trump has pitted agency heads against their departments—Scott Pruitt at the Environmental Protection Agency, Ryan Zinke at the Interior Department, and Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State. But subtly, Trump is also diminishing the role of science and technology, simply by not hiring anyone at all. Specifically, the White House has significantly reduced staff at the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), a vibrant policy and research hub that flourished under the Obama administration. Out of roughly 114 former OSTP positions, Trump has left more than 70 unfilled since his inauguration. This is according to a list of current OSTP staff that Motherboard acquired using a Freedom of Information Act request. It was last updated by OSTP record-keeping on March 27, 2017. The new roster, when compared to President Obama's own staff listing, reveals that most of the previous administration's employees there have vacated—though the impetus for their departures is tricky to determine. Trump's inability to fill these positions has insiders worried about his capacity for making informed decisions related to artificial intelligence, STEM education, digital innovation, and other issues. Notably absent are chief technology officer, a host of policy advisors to the Technology & Innovation Division, everyone with "climate" in their title, and executive director for the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. The office's budget and administration division was left untouched. "There's real value in having this office around and functioning. We can point to all sorts of policy reports that we've done over the last few years [and] this stuff isn't stagnant," Dan Hammer, who served as senior policy advisor in the OSTP's Office of the Chief Technology Officer under President Obama, told me. When Congress established the office in 1976 under President Ford, its intent was to strengthen the president's policymaking, as far as science and technology were concerned, with sound science and analysis. During Obama's tenure, OSTP experts prepared America for the realities of artificial intelligence, the technology of future cities, and imminent cybersecurity threats. Still, a modest amount of turnover is expected. Some OSTP staff, such as fellows, are temporarily hired from nonprofits or academia. As of March 1, 2016, OSTP had 117 employees, including 19 fellows. It's not uncommon for these staff to plan for their departures a year before their terms are scheduled to end. Potentially, they were among the first to leave when Trump came into office. There's little doubt, however, that Trump has his own plans for science and technology leadership. His son-in-law, senior advisor Jared Kushner, will spearhead the new White House Office of American Innovation, whose mission is similar to that of the OSTP's Technology & Innovation Division. Trump also hired Michael Kratsios, former chief of staff at Thiel Capital, to be his deputy chief technology officer. The political neophyte and Peter Thiel confidant will also serve as deputy assistant to the president for technology initiatives. Another OSTP staffer, Stephanie Xu, was recently hired under the title of "Confidential Assistant." It's unclear what this role will entail. Xu isn't listed in the FOIA documents that Motherboard received, but we were able to confirm her employment there. According to her LinkedIn page, Xu formerly worked as a deputy finance director for the Republican National Committee. The president hasn't indicated that he intends to fill the vacant positions or create new ones. Historically, this is somewhat unprecedented. Under Obama, OSTP roles were allegedly staffed out within months. But Trump has been slow to hire across the board, which some attribute to "an overworked White House personnel office." White House sources told the New York Times that OSTP staff are no longer privy to daily briefings. In an interview with Recode, one person described the office, which is hardly ever consulted anymore, as "disempowered." We also learned that existing staff have absorbed much of their former colleagues' excess workload. Based on the information we received from our FOIA request, below are the current and former OSTP employees, along with their titles. Chief of Staff Cristin Dorgelo Senior Advisor to the Director Jeff Smith Assistant Director, Federal Research and Development Kei Koizumi Assistant Director, Legislative Affairs Donna Pignatelli Communications Director and Senior Policy Analyst Kristin Lee Senior Communications Advisor Chris Vaccaro Senior Policy Advisor, Public Engagement Fae Jencks Policy Advisor to the Chief of Staff Erin Szulman Executive Assistant Billie McGrane U.S. Chief Technology Officer Megan Smith Deputy Chief Technology Officer Ed Felten Deputy Chief Technology Officer Corinna Zarek Deputy Chief Technology Officer Alexander Macgillivray Deputy Chief Technology Officer for Data Policy and Chief Data Scientist DJ Patil Senior Policy Advisor Evan Cooke Senior Policy Advisor Renee Gregory Senior Policy Advisor Dan Hammer Senior Policy Advisor Lynn Overmann Senior Policy Advisor Jason Schultz Senior Policy Advisor, Digital Government Emily Tavoulareas Senior Policy Advisor Aden Van Noppen Senior Policy Advisor Laura Weidman-Powers Senior Policy Advisor, Innovation and IP Nancy Weiss Senior Policy Advisor, Health and Health IT Claudia Williams Policy Advisor Read Holman Policy Advisor Kristen Honey Policy Advisor Kelly Jin Policy Advisor Terah Lyons Special Assistant and Policy Advisor Matthew McAllister Special Assistant and Policy Advisor Suhas Subramanyam Associate Director Vacant Principal Assistant Director for Environment & Energy Tamara Dickinson Assistant Director, Clean Energy and Transportation Austin Brown Assistant Director, Climate Adaptation and Ecosystems Laura Petes Assistant Director, Climate Resilience and Information Amy Luers Assistant Director, Climate Resilience and Land Use Rich Pouyat Assistant Director, Climate Science Donald Wuebbles Assistant Director, Environmental Health Bruce Rodan Executive Director, Arctic Executive Steering Committee Mark Brzezinski Senior Policy Advisor Fabien Laurier Senior Policy Advisor, Energy Elaine Ulrich Executive Secretary and Policy Advisor, Arctic Executive Steering Commitee Renee Crain Wagner National Ocean Council Fellow Matthew Lurie Associate Director Vacant Principal Assistant Director for National Security & International Affairs Steve Fetter Assistant Director, Cybersecurity Strategy Gregory Shannon Assistant Director, Global Security Matt Heavner Assistant Director, International Science and Technology Mahlet Mesfin Senior Policy Advisor, National Security, Space, and Aviation Fred Kennedy Associate Director Vacant Deputy Director for Technology and Innovation Tom Kalil Assistant Director, Behavioral Science Maya Shankar Assistant Director, Biological Innovation Robbie Barbero Assistant Director, Education and Telecommunications Innovation Aadil Ginwala Assistant Director, Entrepreneurship Douglas Rand Assistant Director, Innovation for Growth Jennifer Erickson Assistant Director, Learning and Innovation Kumar Garg Assistant Director, Open Innovation Christofer Nelson Senior Policy Advisor, Advanced Manufacturing/Fellow Megan Brewster Senior Policy Advisor, Small Business Innovation Nate Segal Senior Policy Advisor, Tech Inclusion Ruthe Farmer Senior Policy Advisor Ayo Babajide Senior Policy Advisor Beadsie Woo Senior Advisor, Innovation Policy Daniel Correa Senior Advisor, Making Andrew Coy Policy Advisor Erik Martin Policy Advisor Lusine Galoyan PRESIDENT'S COUNCIL OF ADVISORS ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Assistant Director, Cybersecurity Tim Polk Assistant Director, Research Infrastructure Tof Carim Policy Analyst for Medical and Forensic Sciences Eleanor Celeste Assistant Director, Intelligence Allison Curran Natalie Senior Policy Advisor Natalie Evans Harris Acting Division Lead Chris Fall Assistant Director, Polar Sciences Martin Jeffries Assistant Director, Civil and Commercial Space Benjamin Roberts Staff Director for Energy and Environment Robert Strickling USGEO Program Director Timothy Stryker Assistant Director, Broadening Participation Wanda Ward Acting Division Lead Lloyd Whitman SINSI Fellow Becky Kreutter Senior Policy Advisor, Counterterrorism and WMD Maureen Kraner Acting Division Lead Meredith Drosback Program Support Specialist Jennifer Michael Executive Director, NSTC Afua Bruce Executive Director, USGCRP Mike Kuperberg Senior Policy Advisor for Biological Threat Defense JP Chretien Director, NITRD Bryan Biegel Special Assistant and Policy Advisor Alexander Kamrud Assistant Director, Biosecurity and Emerging Technologies Gerald Epstein White House Leadership Development Fellow Kenneth Wright Acting Division Lead Deerin Babb-Brott Assistant Director, Natural Disaster Resilience Jaqueline Meszaros Director, NNCO Lisa Friedersdorf Policy Analyst Steven Baldovsky Acting Legislative Advisor Linda Bunn Mary Administrative Security Specialist Mary Burgess-Gregg Administrative Specialist Donna Coleman IT Specialist George Cravaritis Administrative Operations Officer Dawn Epperson Budget Analyst Penny Guy Administrative Specialist Daw Mielke Operations Manager Stacy Murphy Administrative Officer Diana Zunker Deputy Assistant to the President for Technology Initiatives and Deputy US CTO Michael Kratsios Deputy General Counsel and Senior Policy Advisor for Oceans and the Environment Jennifer Lee General Counsel Rachael Leonard Acting Director Ted Wackler Assistant Director, Special Programs Mark Leblanc Confidential Assistant Stephanie Xu Correction: This story has been updated to reflect that Deputy Chief Technology Officer Corinna Zarek left her position at the Office of Science and Technology Policy on March 30, 2017, after this list was provided to us. Zarek's departure was known by then, according to Alex Howard, Deputy Director at the Sunlight Foundation.
News Article | May 4, 2017
Minister Umiich Sengebau (1st row, 4th from left) opened the national consultation on Aquatic Biosecurity and Biofouling Management Some thirty participants representing the government (Bureau of Justice: Office of the Attorney General and Division of Fish and Wildlife Protection) Bureau of Agriculture (BOA including the Division of Biosecurity), Bureau of Customs and Border Protection, Environmental Quality Protection Board, Ngatpang State; the private sector (BIOTA, Inc., Coral Reef Research Foundation, Palau Aquaculture Cooperative Association, Palau Conservation Society, Environment, Inc.); and the academe (Palau Community College) met on 28 March during a national consultation held at the Palasia Hotel. The participants deliberated on the draft regulations on aquatic biosecurity and biofouling management, actions that are intended to protect Palau's young and growing aquaculture sector, as well as its exquisite coral reefs and lagoons. Aquaculture is an important source of biological invasions, either because the organisms being raised are aquatic invasive species or because of the presence of hitchhikers in imported shipments. Aquaculture organisms can also carry diseases which can impact the aquaculture industry and may spread to native species. In order to reduce pressures on wild marine fish and other marine organisms of economic importance, the national government has decided to increase aquaculture efforts in both marine and freshwater. While efforts have focused on breeding native fish and shellfish such as groupers, clams and mangrove crabs, there is also pressure to import exotic species, such as tilapia and whiteleg shrimp. Shipping is also a major concern, as it is has caused the global spread of many marine organisms. All groups of marine organisms may be transported through ballast water, while encrusting organisms (e.g. macro-algae, bivalve mollusks, barnacles, bryozoans, sponges and tunicates), can be carried on ships' hulls. Both may result in the introduction and spread of hard-to-eradicate species that prey on or outcompete native species and foul ports, coasts and aquaculture facilities. These invasive species are a serious threat to the pristine marine waters of Palau. In particular, recreational yachts pose a very high risk for hull-fouling organisms, as they are slow moving and may lack the incentives to keep their hulls immaculate. With the support of the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) through TCP/PLW/3601/C1: Strengthening Biosecurity Capacity of Palau, the BOA and other partners in the marine and aquaculture sectors have been working with a team of experts on aquatic animal health, hull fouling, and database development to support the recently approved Biosecurity Act of 2014 that will protect Palau's aquaculture producers from diseases and other threats to their farms. In opening the national consultation, the Honorable Umiich Sengebau, Minister of Natural Resources, Environment and Tourism, thanked FAO and the participants for supporting this important effort by the BOA to protect Palau's aquaculture industry and our pristine marine environment. "These protections should be adopted and implemented as quickly as possible, and I ask that all here today work together toward this end."There was strong consensus from the participants of the national consultation to support the implementation of the Biosecurity Act of 2014, finalize the draft regulations and submit a position paper that will enable Palau's President and Cabinet to make informed decisions to support Pristine Paradise Palau through a culture of protection and conservation.
News Article | May 4, 2017
Funded by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and co-organized with the Ministry of Fisheries (MoF), the Biosecurity Agency of Fiji (BAF), the University of South Pacific (USP) and facilitated by FAO, the workshop participated by 39 representing the government, the academe (USP), producers (Pacific Ocean Culture Pte Ltd., The Crab Company of Fiji Ltd., Valili Pearls Co., Ltd., Pacific Ocean Culture Pte Ltd., Aquarium Fish (Fiji) Ltd. and Vet Essentials Fiji Ltd.) and regional and international organizations (FAO, JICA, Secretariat of the Pacific Community), prepared a draft NAAHB Strategy. A broad yet comprehensive strategy for building and enhancing capacity for the management of national aquatic biosecurity and aquatic animal health, the strategy will focus on five priority commodities, namely: prawn & shrimp, seaweeds, pearls, Nile tilapia, giant clam & sandfish. The strategy contains the national action plans at the short-, medium- and long-term using phased implementation based on national needs and priorities. The strategy framework consists of Purpose and Vision Statements and Guiding Principles. The strategy includes 10 Programme Component/Elements, each one contains a description of the scope, objectives, current status and projects/activities that will be implemented at the short-, medium- and long-term based on national needs and priorities. Responsible entities for each project/activity are also included as well as an Implementation Plan. The 10 Programme Components/Elements are: (1) Policy, Legislation and Enforcement, (2) Risk Analysis, (3) Pathogen List, (4) Border Inspection and Quarantine, (5) Surveillance, Monitoring and Reporting, (6) Emergency Preparedness and Contingency Planning, (7) Institutional Structure (Including Infrastructure), (8) Research and Development, (9) Regional and International Cooperation, and (10) Capacity Building. Development of a NAAHB Strategy involves an extensive & iterative process led by the Competent Authority and extensive consultation with key stakeholders from other government agencies, academia and the private sector. It is a proactive measure without which a country can only react in a piecemeal fashion to new developments in international trade and the global situation with regard to serious transboundary aquatic animal diseases (TAADs), and its aquaculture and fisheries sectors will remain highly vulnerable to new and emerging diseases that may severely affect capture fisheries and aquaculture production, leading to major social and economic impacts. Fiji can take an important lead role in setting an example for the Pacific region with a vision that Fiji's aquatic wildlife and aquaculture species thrive in a healthy environment, valued by its society that embraces and sustainably benefits from the diversity of its aquatic resources. Fiji's MoF has taken the initial necessary steps for developing a NAAHB Strategy for the country. The development of this strategy is a very timely initiative and is in line and in parallel to a number of legal and policy instruments (e.g. Aquaculture Bill 2016 scheduled for 3rd hearing at the Parliament; the draft National Fisheries Policy and the draft Fiji Aquaculture Strategy) – all of which will support sustainable aquaculture development. Mr Semi Koroilavesau, The Honorable Minister for Fisheries, Mr Hiroyuki Sawada, JICA Resident Representative, Dr Ciro Rico, Head of the School of Marine Studies of USP, Dr Robin Yarrow, Keynote Speaker and Chairperson of National Trust of Fiji and Dr Melba Reantaso of FAO graced the Opening session of the workshop. Further information can be obtained by writing to Melba.Reantaso@fao.org
News Article | May 8, 2017
Australian biosecurity officials have destroyed historically significant plant samples from 19th-century France and damaged the reputation of Australian researchers, the head of the peak herbaria body has said. In two separate incidents, quarantine officials have incinerated specimens sent to Australian research facilities from overseas. One collection dated back to the mid-1800s and was sent to the Queensland herbarium by the Paris Natural History Museum in March. “Quarantine basically said the paperwork wasn’t compliant and their response was to destroy them before another solution could be made,” the chairwoman of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, Prof Michelle Waycott, said. “What usually happens is we have a discussion – whether it’s letters or a phone call – but in this case we seem to have missed a step somewhere.” Waycott told Guardian Australia it was the second such incident and, after a sample from a Christchurch facility sent to Canberra was destroyed, New Zealand enacted a blanket ban on sending any further specimen to Australia. “It means taxonomy on materials in New Zealand can’t go ahead,” she said. “That’s a huge problem for us but I understand it. I wouldn’t want to send stuff overseas if it’s going to get destroyed either.” Waycott said international research depended on sample sharing around the globe and it was how we learned whether there had been new discoveries made. “We can find new species formerly not known to science – many of those are hidden away until a researcher does some work on them,” she said. “When you have specimens that are very old or hard to get to – mountaintops in Papua New Guinea, or found 150 years ago on the north Australian coastline – they sometimes represent material that may not exist anymore. That’s why it’s so devastating.” Waycott said the two incidents had put Australia researchers in a difficult position and there was now a question mark for anyone considering sending them material. “Australia’s quarantine rules, which are very important, are strict and the herbarium network is very careful – most of our institutions have quarantine status,” she said. “We’re world leaders and we should be supported in this.” The Australian Department of Agriculture and Water Resources is conducting a review into the incidents. A spokesman said the French samples were marked with a value of $2 and there was no prior notification of the package’s arrival or significance. An email mix-up has been blamed for a communication failure which saw further documentation not received by officials. Biosecurity officials held the samples for more than a month longer than they were required once problems with the paperwork were identified but conceded they were of “significant value as a botanical reference collection” and should not have been destroyed. “Destruction of the specimens should not have proceeded while communication between the department and the intended recipient was ongoing,” the department said. “This is a deeply regrettable occurrence, but it does highlight the importance of the shared responsibility of Australia’s biosecurity system, and the need for adherence to import conditions.” The department was unaware of the New Zealand specimen destruction but was investigating “as a matter or priority”.
News Article | May 4, 2017
05 October 2015, Brasilia — “The Sub-Committee on aquaculture is a unique global forum where aquaculture related matters are debated and strategic plans developed at the highest level by Member countries’ aquaculture authorities from all over the world”, recalled Mr. Jiansan Jia, Deputy Director of the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Resources Management and Conservation Division, when delivering, on behalf of the Department and of the FAO Director-General, Dr. Graziano da Silva, his opening remarks at the 8th Session of the FAO COFI Sub-Committee on Aquaculture, an event that drew together close to 100 delegates from around 50 countries of the Americas, Africa, Asia and Europe, for five days from 05 to 09 October 2015. The Government of Brazil is proud of hosting the event. “It is a great honor for Brazil to host and serve as platform for the most relevant discussions and deliberations of the sector”, stated His Excellency Mr. Helder Barbalho, Minister for Fisheries and Aquaculture who officially opened the Session on behalf of the Government of Brazil. The role of aquaculture in feeding humanity and ensuring its well-being is unquestionable and still growing. Sharing some of the recent highlights of the sector, Mr. Jia indicated that world aquaculture production has continued to grow, reaching 97 million tonnes with an estimated value of USD157 billion in 2013, producing more than 43 percent of the fish we consume today and generating millions of jobs worldwide, thereby contributing to lifting millions out of poverty while helping them put nutritious food on their tables. At a time where FAO and various partners celebrate the 20th birthday of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries this week in Vigo, Spain, FAO believes that ensuring food security for our growing world population is more important than ever before. The Code provides a solid basis for helping Member countries achieve this goal, pursued Mr. Jia. The meeting agenda is rich and expectations are high — In addition to two Side Events on “FAO work with partners towards sustainable use, conservation and management of Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture” and on “Biosecurity and Public-Private Sector Partnership; a shared responsibility”, respectively, and one Special Event on “Contribution of aquaculture to food and nutrition security, poverty alleviation and national economies: evidence-based experiences”, the meeting will discuss a range of important aspects pertinent to the development of the aquaculture sector, including the implementation of technical guidelines on aquaculture certification and the evaluation framework to assess the conformity of aquaculture certification schemes with the guidelines; aquaculture as part of the Blue Growth Initiative; aquaculture research and education; and the improvement of livelihoods through decent employment. In a press conference following the kick-off of the event, Minister Barbalho revealed his expectations from the meeting as: “the outcome of this Sub-Committee meeting will serve as a guide for decision making and agreement for the development of the aquaculture nationally, regionally and worldwide”.
News Article | May 5, 2017
New detections of phylloxera have seen the boundary of Victoria’s Maroondah Phylloxera Infested Zone (PIZ) boundary extended to the north – incorporating four additional vineyards. While the new detections were found within the existing PIZ boundary, it has been extended to maintain a 5km buffer zone between an infested property and the PIZ boundary. While the size of the extension appears large, Vinehealth Australia said it encompasses national and state forests and aligns with main roads. For example, the Healesville-Kinglake Road was the first main road to the north, therefore the Maroondah PIZ has been extended to this point. Inca Pearce, Vinehealth Australia chief executive officer, said the extension to this PIZ boundary was a concern. “Phylloxera doesn’t respect vineyard boundaries or state borders. We must work together nationally to ensure we stop the spread of phylloxera,” Pearce said. “Vinehealth Australia recognises the need to act with urgency to respond to a constantly evolving biosecurity environment, with trends in trade, tourism, climate change and business ownership increasing the extent and nature of biosecurity risks. These new detections underscore the urgency.” Pearce said the new infestations are a reminder for growers and vineyard managers to report any suspect vine decline early. “If your vines are declining, investigate quickly to identify the cause. If you suspect a phylloxera infestation, you must notify your state agricultural department or Vinehealth Australia,” she said. “And it’s imperative that vineyard owners, managers, staff and all visitors respect state plant quarantine standards and implement best practice farm-gate hygiene on every property. Biosecurity is a team game and we are only as strong as the weakest link. “Vineyard owners, wineries, contractors and carriers must understand the regulations and documentation required for the movement of grapes and grape materials, machinery and equipment, diagnostic samples, soil, cuttings, rootlings and potted vines, within and between states. And ensure all people who visit your property clean and disinfest their footwear on entry and exit, in accordance with the Footwear and Small Hand Tool Disinfestation Protocol.” This latest boundary extension is the sixth expansion to the original Maroondah PIZ, which was established in 2006 following the first detection of phylloxera in the Yarra Valley. Grape phylloxera is a small insect that lives on the roots of grapevines. Once established, death of own-rooted vines is inevitable. Vinehealth Australia said it was imperative for vineyard owners and managers to check any links they might have with businesses operating in the extension area. Vinehealth Australia also welcomes calls about the Maroondah PIZ on (08) 8273 0550. For interactive maps showing Phylloxera Exclusion Zones (PEZ), PRZ and PIZs across Australia’s grapegrowing regions visit: https://maps.phylloxera.com.au/virtual/pmz/ For information about movement requirements for phylloxera risk vectors visit: http://www.vinehealth.com.au/essentials/regulations-and-policies/phylloxera-regulations/
News Article | May 5, 2017
Phylloxera was detected within the existing PIZ boundary, but the PIZ has been extended to maintain a 5km buffer zone between the boundary of the closest infested property and the PIZ boundary. The extension, which was confirmed on 30 March and announced by Agriculture Victoria this week, sees four additional vineyards in the Yarra Valley region brought within the boundary. It is the sixth expansion to the original Maroondah PIZ, which was established in 2006 following the first detection of phylloxera in the region. The previous extension to the Maroondah PIZ was in April 2016. CEO of Vinehealth Australia, Inca Pearce, said this further extension was “concerning”, and highlighted the importance of implementing farm-gate hygiene practices, monitoring vines routinely and reporting any suspect vine decline early. “Phylloxera doesn’t respect vineyard boundaries or state borders. We must work together nationally to ensure we stop the spread of phylloxera,” said Inca. “Vinehealth Australia recognises the need to act with urgency to respond to a constantly evolving biosecurity environment, with trends in trade, tourism, climate change and business ownership increasing the extent and nature of biosecurity risks. These new detections underscore the urgency.” In Australia, grape phylloxera is currently confined to parts of Victoria and New South Wales, with the majority of commercial vine plantings still on their own vitis vinifera roots, which unlike American rootstocks, are highly susceptible to phylloxera. Throughout Europe, the vast majority of vitis vinifera vines are grafted onto American rootstocks to protect them from the disease. To manage its spread, Vinehealth Australia surveys each region in Australia every 3-5 years using a combination of aerial imagery and vineyard inspections, works with state regulators to strengthen plant quarantine standards and invests in research to improve phylloxera detection methods. “If your vines are declining, investigate quickly to identify the cause,” urged Inca. “If you suspect a phylloxera infestation, you must notify your state agricultural department or Vinehealth Australia. And it’s imperative that vineyard owners, managers, staff and all visitors respect state plant quarantine standards and implement best practice farm-gate hygiene on every property. Biosecurity is a team game and we are only as strong as the weakest link.” Updated phylloxera zone maps can be found here: www.vinehealth.com.au/biosecurity-inpractice/maps/phylloxera-management-zones. A map of the Maroondah PIZ can be viewed more closely here.