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São Paulo, Brazil

Zimberknopf E.,Centro Universitario Da Fundacao Of Ensino Octavio Bastos | Xavier G.F.,Biosciences Institute | Kinsley C.H.,University of Richmond | Felicio L.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Comparative Medicine

Reproductive experience in female rats modifies acquired behaviors, induces long-lasting functional neuroadaptations and can also modify spatial learning and memory. The present study supports and expands this knowledge base by employing the Morris water maze, which measures spatial memory. Age-matched young adult (YNG) nulliparous (NULL; nonmated) and primiparous (PRIM; one pregnancy and lactation) female rats were tested 15 d after the litter's weaning. In addition, corresponding middle-aged (AGD) PRIM (mated in young adulthood so that pregnancy, parturition, and lactation occurred at the same age as in YNG PRIM) and NULL female rats were tested at 18 mo of age. Behavioral evaluation included: 1) acquisition of reference memory (platform location was fixed for 14 to 19 d of testing); 2) retrieval of this information associated with extinction of the acquired response (probe test involving removal of the platform 24 h after the last training session); and 3) performance in a working memory version of the task (platform presented in a novel location every day for 13 d, and maintained in a fixed location within each day). YNG PRIM outperformed NULL rats and showed different behavioral strategies. These results may be related to changes in locomotor, mnemonic, and cognitive processes. In addition, YNG PRIM exhibited less anxiety-like behavior. Compared with YNG rats, AGD rats showed less behavioral flexibility but stronger memory consolidation. These data, which were obtained by using a welldocumented spatial task, demonstrate long lasting modifications of behavioral strategies in both YNG and AGD rats associated with a single reproductive experience. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Source

Xavier N.P.,Sao Paulo State University | Chaim R.C.,Sacred Heart University of Brazil | Gimeno S.G.A.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Ferreira S.R.G.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders

Background: The American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), revising the National Cholesterol Evaluation Program for Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) have proposed definitions of metabolic syndrome that take into account waist circumference thresholds according to ethnicity. In this study we estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Japanese-Brazilian population using NCEP definitions for Westerners (NCEPwe) and Asians (NCEPas), and IDF for Japanese (IDF). Methods: A total of 650 Japanese-Brazilians living in a developed Brazilian city and aged 30-88 years were included. Results: Metabolic syndrome prevalence according to NCEPwe, NCEPas, and IDF was, respectively, 46.5%, 56.5%, and 48.3%. Only 43.5% of subjects did not have metabolic syndrome by any of the 3 definitions, and 38.3% fulfilled metabolic syndrome criteria for all 3 definitions. Ten percent of subjects were positive for metabolic syndrome based on NCEPas and IDF, but not for NCEPwe. Because IDF requires abdominal obesity as a criterion, the frequency of subjects without metabolic syndrome according to IDF, but with metabolic syndrome by NCEPwe and NCEPas was 8.2%. Conclusions: Independent of the metabolic syndrome definition, Japanese-Brazilians present an elevated metabolic syndrome prevalence, which was higher when using NCEP criteria for Asians, followed by the IDF definition for Japanese. © 2010 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Xavier N.P.,Sao Paulo State University | Chaim R.C.,Sacred Heart University of Brazil | Gimeno S.G.A.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Ferreira S.R.G.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Medical Science Monitor

Background: Prevalence of individuals with a high cardiovascular risk is elevated in elderly populations. Although metabolic syndrome (MS) increases cardiovascular risk, information is scarce on the prevalence of MS in the elderly. In this study we assessed MS prevalence in a population of elderly Japanese-Brazilians using different MS definitions according to waist circumference cutoff values. Material/Methods: We studied 339 elderly subjects, 44.8% males, aged between 60 to 88 years (70.1±6.8). MS was defending according to criteria proposed by the Joint Interim Statement in 2009. As waist circumference cutoff point values remain controversial for Asian and Japanese populations, we employed 3 different cutoffs that are commonly used in Japanese epidemiological studies: 1) ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women; 2) ≥85 cm for men and ≥90 cm for women; 3) ≥85 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. Results: MS prevalence ranged from 59.9% to 65.8% according to the different definitions. We observed 90% concordance and no statistical difference (p>0.05) in MS prevalence between the 3 definitions. MS diagnosis according to all 3 cutoff values was found in 55.8% of our population, while in only 34.2% was MS discarded by all cutoffs. The prevalence of altered MS components was as follows: arterial blood pressure 82%, fasting glycerin 65.8%, triglyceride 43.4%, and HDL-C levels 36.9%. Conclusions: Elderly Japanese-Brazilians present high metabolic syndrome prevalence independent of waist circumference cutoff values. Concordance between the 3 definitions is high, suggesting that all 3 cutoff values yield similar metabolic syndrome prevalence values in this population. © Med Sci Monit, 2012. Source

Seito L.N.,Biosciences Institute | Sforcin J.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Bastos J.K.,University of Sao Paulo | Di Stasi L.C.,Biosciences Institute
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Objectives Zeyheria montana is a medicinal plant used in Brazilian folk medicine for treating skin affections, ulcers, inflammation and diarrhoea, and as an antisyphilitic and antiblenorrhagic agent, but little is known about its mechanisms of action. Herein, a bio-guided assay was carried out to further evaluate its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, and the possible benefits on experimental intestinal inflammation. Methods Extracts, partitions, fractions and isolated compounds were tested for inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Isolated compounds were tested in vitro for its antioxidant and immunomodulatory action prior to in-vivo evaluation in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rat colitis. Key findings Two major compounds were identified in the leaf dichloromethane extract: 3′-hydroxy-5,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone and 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavone, which exhibited an antioxidant activity. The compounds protected the colonic glutathione levels in more than 90% despite the absence of protection against the gross macroscopic colonic damage. In addition, the compounds inhibited IL-1ß secretion by macrophages in 91.5% and 72.7% respectively, whereas both reduced IL-6 secretion in about 44.5%. Conclusions The major active compounds from Z. montana leaves exerted antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, endorsing the use of Z. montana in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, further investigation is still needed regarding medicinal plants and the identification of candidate compounds for the treatment of the inflammatory bowel diseases. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Source

Lindsay A.J.,Biosciences Institute | Lindsay A.J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Jollivet F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Horgan C.P.,Biosciences Institute | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell

Myosin Va is a widely expressed actin-based motor protein that binds members of the Rab GTPase family (3A, 8A, 10, 11A, 27A) and is implicated in many intracellular trafficking processes. To our knowledge, myosin Va has not been tested in a systematic screen for interactions with the entire Rab GTPase family. To that end, we report a yeast two-hybrid screen of all human Rabs for myosin Va-binding ability and reveal 10 novel interactions (3B, 3C, 3D, 6A, 6A′, 6B, 11B, 14, 25, 39B), which include interactions with three new Rab subfamilies (Rab6, Rab14, Rab39B). Of interest, myosin Va interacts with only a subset of the Rabs associated with the endocytic recycling and post-Golgi secretory systems. We demonstrate that myosin Va has three distinct Rab-binding domains on disparate regions of the motor (central stalk, an alternatively spliced exon, and the globular tail). Although the total pool of myosin Va is shared by several Rabs, Rab10 and Rab11 appear to be the major determinants of its recruitment to intracellular membranes. We also present evidence that myosin Va is necessary for maintaining a peripheral distribution of Rab11- and Rab14-positive endosomes. © 2013 Lindsay et al. Source

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