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Hussein-Al-Ali S.H.,Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine | El Zowalaty M.E.,Bioscience Vaccines | El Zowalaty M.E.,Jazan University | Hussein M.Z.,Institute of Advanced Technology | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2014

Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of iron salts in sodium hydroxide followed by coating separately with chitosan (CS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form CS-MNPs and PEG-MNPs nanoparticles, respectively. They were then loaded with kojic acid (KA), a pharmacologically bioactive natural compound, to form KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites, respectively. The MNPs and their nanocomposites were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction data suggest that all formulations consisted of highly crystalline, pure magnetite Fe3O4. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the presence of both polymers and KA in the nanocomposites. Magnetization curves showed that both nanocomposites (KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs) were superparamagnetic with saturation magnetizations of 8.1 emu/g and 26.4 emu/g, respectively. The KA drug loading was estimated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which gave a loading of 12.2% and 8.3% for the KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites, respectively. The release profile of the KA from the nanocomposites followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The agar diffusion test was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity for both KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites against a number of microorganisms using two Gram-positive (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and one Gram-negative (Salmonella enterica) species, and showed some antibacterial activity, which could be enhanced in future studies by optimizing drug loading. This study provided evidence for the promise for the further investigation of the possible beneficial biological activities of KA and both KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites in nanopharmaceutical applications. © 2014 Hussein-Al-Ali et al.

Wutte N.,Medical University of Graz | Archelos J.,Medical University of Graz | Crowe B.A.,Bioscience Vaccines | Zenz W.,Medical University of Graz | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2014

Purpose To compare Borrelia-specific intrathecal antibodies by two different ELISAs, an immunoblot (IB) and CXCL13.Methods Twenty-seven adults and 23 children with clinical symptoms compatible with NB were tested for Borrelia-specific intrathecal antibodies by flagellum ELISA-AI (flELISA), a recombinant ELISA-AI (rELISA) and by IB. Patients were classified according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) criteria as definite NB, possible NB, or non-NB. CSF CXCL13 levels were measured by ELISA.Results Among 50 patients, definite NB was diagnosed with the rELISA-AI in 29 (58%) patients, confirmed by IB in 19/29 patients, with flELISA-AI in 17 (34%) patients, confirmed by IB in 15/17 patients, and with IB in 20 (40%) patients. CXCL13 was positive in 22 (44%) patients. In 4 of 8 patients with negative AI, IB showed many detectable bands both in the CSF and serum.Conclusions The diagnosis of NB strongly relies on the used test method. The rELISA-AI test appears to be the most sensitive while the flELISA-AI is the least sensitive. However when the ELISA-AIs were confirmed by IB, different patients were identified as NB, while only 26% were identified by all performed test methods. There is a demand for standardized test methods with well-defined sensitivity and specificity to establish validated diagnostic criteria for NB including the use of the IB assay and CXCL13 as an additional non-Borrelia specific determinant in early NB. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fritz R.,Vaccine Research and Development | Sabarth N.,Vaccine Research and Development | Kiermayr S.,Vaccine Research and Development | Hohenadl C.,Vaccine Research and Development | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

A Vero cell-derived whole-virus H5N1 influenza vaccine has been shown to induce neutralizing antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of diverse H5N1 strains in animal studies and clinical trials. However, neuraminidase-inhibiting (NAi) antibodies can reduce viral spread and may be of particular importance in the event of an H5N1 pandemic, where immunity due to HA antibodies is likely absent in the general population. Here we demonstrate the effective induction of NAi antibody titers after H5N1 vaccination in humans. In contrast to the immune response directed toward HA, a single vaccine dose induced a strong NAi response that was not significantly boosted by a second dose, most probably due to priming by previous vaccination or infection with seasonal influenza viruses. After 2 immunizations, seroconversion rates based on antibody titers against HA and NA were similar, indicating the induction of equally strong immune responses against both proteins by this H5N1 vaccine. © 2011 The Author.


Bioscience Vaccines | Date: 2011-10-28

adjuvants for medical purposes; adjuvants for use with vaccines.

Schafer B.,Biomedical Research Center | Holzer G.W.,Biomedical Research Center | Joachimsthaler A.,Biomedical Research Center | Coulibaly S.,Biomedical Research Center | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Currently existing yellow fever (YF) vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D). Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. Methodology/Principal Findings: A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME) protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 10 5 TCID 50. Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. Conclusions/Significance: The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice. © 2011 Schäfer et al.

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