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Schafer B.,Biomedical Research Center | Holzer G.W.,Biomedical Research Center | Joachimsthaler A.,Biomedical Research Center | Coulibaly S.,Biomedical Research Center | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Currently existing yellow fever (YF) vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D). Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. Methodology/Principal Findings: A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME) protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 10 5 TCID 50. Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. Conclusions/Significance: The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice. © 2011 Schäfer et al.

Hessel A.,Biomedical Research Center | Schwendinger M.,Biomedical Research Center | Holzer G.W.,Biomedical Research Center | Orlinger K.K.,Biomedical Research Center | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: New highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses are continuing to evolve with a potential threat for an influenza pandemic. So far, the H5N1 influenza viruses have not widely circulated in humans and therefore constitute a high risk for the non immune population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-protective potential of the hemagglutinins of five H5N1 strains of divergent clades using a live attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings: The replication-deficient MVA virus was used to express influenza hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. Specifically, recombinant MVA viruses expressing the HA genes of the clade 1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN/ 1203), the clade 2.1.3 virus A/Indonesia/5/2005 (IN5/05), the clade 2.2 viruses A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (TT01/05) and A/ chicken/Egypt/3/2006 (CE/06), and the clade 2.3.4 virus A/Anhui/1/2005 (AH1/05) were constructed. These experimental live vaccines were assessed in a lethal mouse model. Mice vaccinated with the VN/1203 hemagglutinin-expressing MVA induced excellent protection against all the above mentioned clades. Also mice vaccinated with the IN5/05 HA expressing MVA induced substantial protection against homologous and heterologous AH1/05 challenge. After vaccination with the CE/06 HA expressing MVA, mice were fully protected against clade 2.2 challenge and partially protected against challenge of other clades. Mice vaccinated with AH1/05 HA expressing MVA vectors were only partially protected against homologous and heterologous challenge. The live vaccines induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies, mainly directed against the homologous challenge virus, and high levels of HA-specific IFN-γ secreting CD4 and CD8 T-cells against epitopes conserved among the H5 clades and subclades. Conclusions/Significance: The highest level of cross-protection was induced by the HA derived from the VN/1203 strain, suggesting that pandemic H5 vaccines utilizing MVA vector technology, should be based on the VN/1203 hemagglutinin. Furthermore, the recombinant MVA-HA-VN, as characterized in the present study, would be a promising candidate for such a vaccine. © 2011 Hessel et al.

PubMed | University Putra Malaysia, Institute of Bioscience and Bioscience Vaccines
Type: | Journal: International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2016

This study involves adaptation of bulk or sequential technique to load multiple flavonoids in a single phytosome, which can be termed as flavonosome. Three widely established and therapeutically valuable flavonoids, such as quercetin (Q), kaempferol (K), and apigenin (A), were quantified in the ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves extract and were commercially obtained and incorporated in a single flavonosome (QKA-phosphatidylcholine) through four different methods of synthesis - bulk (M1) and serialized (M2) co-sonication and bulk (M3) and sequential (M4) co-loading. The study also established an optimal formulation method based on screening the synthesized flavonosomes with respect to their size, charge, polydispersity index, morphology, drug-carrier interaction, antioxidant potential through in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl kinetics, and cytotoxicity evaluation against human hepatoma cell line (HepaRG). Furthermore, entrapment and loading efficiency of flavonoids in the optimal flavonosome have been identified. Among the four synthesis methods, sequential loading technique has been optimized as the best method for the synthesis of QKA-phosphatidylcholine flavonosome, which revealed an average diameter of 375.9333.61 nm, with a zeta potential of -39.073.55 mV, and the entrapment efficiency was >98% for all the flavonoids, whereas the drug-loading capacity of Q, K, and A was 31.63%0.17%, 34.51%2.07%, and 31.79%0.01%, respectively. The in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl kinetics of the flavonoids indirectly depicts the release kinetic behavior of the flavonoids from the carrier. The QKA-loaded flavonosome had no indication of toxicity toward human hepatoma cell line as shown by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide result, wherein even at the higher concentration of 200 g/mL, the flavonosomes exert >85% of cell viability. These results suggest that sequential loading technique may be a promising nanodrug delivery system for loading multiflavonoids in a single entity with sustained activity as an antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hepatosupplement candidate.

Hussein-Al-Ali S.H.,Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine | El Zowalaty M.E.,Bioscience Vaccines | El Zowalaty M.E.,Jazan University | Hussein M.Z.,Institute of Advanced Technology | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2014

Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of iron salts in sodium hydroxide followed by coating separately with chitosan (CS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form CS-MNPs and PEG-MNPs nanoparticles, respectively. They were then loaded with kojic acid (KA), a pharmacologically bioactive natural compound, to form KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites, respectively. The MNPs and their nanocomposites were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction data suggest that all formulations consisted of highly crystalline, pure magnetite Fe3O4. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the presence of both polymers and KA in the nanocomposites. Magnetization curves showed that both nanocomposites (KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs) were superparamagnetic with saturation magnetizations of 8.1 emu/g and 26.4 emu/g, respectively. The KA drug loading was estimated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which gave a loading of 12.2% and 8.3% for the KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites, respectively. The release profile of the KA from the nanocomposites followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The agar diffusion test was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity for both KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites against a number of microorganisms using two Gram-positive (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and one Gram-negative (Salmonella enterica) species, and showed some antibacterial activity, which could be enhanced in future studies by optimizing drug loading. This study provided evidence for the promise for the further investigation of the possible beneficial biological activities of KA and both KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites in nanopharmaceutical applications. © 2014 Hussein-Al-Ali et al.

Barahuie F.,Institute of Advanced Technology ITMA | Hussein M.Z.,Institute of Advanced Technology ITMA | Hussein-Al-Ali S.H.,Institute of Bioscience | Arulselvan P.,Bioscience Vaccines | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2013

In the study reported here, magnesium/aluminum (Mg/Al)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was intercalated with an anticancer drug, protocatechuic acid, using ionexchange and direct coprecipitation methods, with the resultant products labeled according to the method used to produce them: PANE (ie, protocatechuic acid-Mg/Al nanocomposite synthesized using the ion-exchange method) and PAND (ie, protocatechuic acid-Mg/Al nanocomposite synthesized using the direct method), respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the intercalation of protocatechuic acid into the inter-galleries of Mg/Al-LDH. The protocatechuic acid between the interlayers of PANE and PAND was found to be a monolayer, with an angle from the z-axis of 8° for PANE and 15° for PAND. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis results revealed that the thermal stability of protocatechuic acid was markedly enhanced upon intercalation. The loading of protocatechuic acid in PANE and PAND was estimated to be about 24.5% and 27.5% (w/w), respectively. The in vitro release study of protocatechuic acid from PANE and PAND in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4, 5.3, and 4.8 revealed that the nanocomposites had a sustained release property. After 72 hours incubation of PANE and PAND with MCF-7 human breast cancer and HeLa human cervical cancer cell lines, it was found that the nanocomposites had suppressed the growth of these cancer cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 35.6 μg/mL for PANE and 36.0 μg/mL for PAND for MCF-7 cells, and 19.8 μg/mL for PANE and 30.3 μg/mL for PAND for HeLa cells. No half maximal inhibitory concentration for either nanocomposite was found for 3T3 cells. 2013 Barahuie et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

PubMed | Medical University of Graz and Bioscience Vaccines
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the neurological sciences | Year: 2014

To compare Borrelia-specific intrathecal antibodies by two different ELISAs, an immunoblot (IB) and CXCL13.Twenty-seven adults and 23 children with clinical symptoms compatible with NB were tested for Borrelia-specific intrathecal antibodies by flagellum ELISA-AI (flELISA), a recombinant ELISA-AI (rELISA) and by IB. Patients were classified according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) criteria as definite NB, possible NB, or non-NB. CSF CXCL13 levels were measured by ELISA.Among 50 patients, definite NB was diagnosed with the rELISA-AI in 29 (58%) patients, confirmed by IB in 19/29 patients, with flELISA-AI in 17 (34%) patients, confirmed by IB in 15/17 patients, and with IB in 20 (40%) patients. CXCL13 was positive in 22 (44%) patients. In 4 of 8 patients with negative AI, IB showed many detectable bands both in the CSF and serum.The diagnosis of NB strongly relies on the used test method. The rELISA-AI test appears to be the most sensitive while the flELISA-AI is the least sensitive. However when the ELISA-AIs were confirmed by IB, different patients were identified as NB, while only 26% were identified by all performed test methods. There is a demand for standardized test methods with well-defined sensitivity and specificity to establish validated diagnostic criteria for NB including the use of the IB assay and CXCL13 as an additional non-Borrelia specific determinant in early NB.

Kura A.U.,Bioscience Vaccines | Hussein M.Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Fakurazi S.,Bioscience Vaccines | Fakurazi S.,University Putra Malaysia | Arulselvan P.,Bioscience Vaccines
Chemistry Central Journal | Year: 2014

The production of layered double hydroxide(LDH) nanocomposite as an alternative drug delivery system against various ailments is on the increase. Their toxicity potential is usually dose and time dependent with particle sizes, shapes and surface charge playing some role both in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The reticular endothelial system of especially the liver and spleen were shown to sequestrate most of these nanocomposite, especially those with sizes greater than 50 nm. The intracellular drug delivery by these particles is mainly via endocytotic pathways aided by the surface charges in most cases. However, structural modification of these nanocomposite via coating using different types of material may lower the toxicity where present. More importantly, the coating may serve as targeting ligand hence, directing drug distribution and leading to proper drug delivery to specific area of need; it equally decreases the unwanted nanocomposite accumulation in especially the liver and spleen. These nanocomposite have the advantage of wider bio-distribution irrespective of route of administration, excellent targeted delivery potential with ease of synthetic modification including coating. © 2014 Kura et al.

Hessel A.,Bioscience Vaccines | Schwendinger M.,Bioscience Vaccines | Fritz D.,Bioscience Vaccines | Coulibaly S.,Bioscience Vaccines | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: The development of novel influenza vaccines inducing a broad immune response is an important objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate live vaccines which induce both strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the novel human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and to show protection in a lethal animal challenge model. Methodology/Principal Findings: For this purpose, the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) strain (CA/07) were inserted into the replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus - a safe poxviral live vector - resulting in MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-N1-Ca vectors. These live vaccines, together with an inactivated whole virus vaccine, were assessed in a lung infection model using immune competent Balb/c mice, and in a lethal challenge model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice after passive serum transfer from immunized mice. Balb/c mice vaccinated with the MVA-H1-Ca virus or the inactivated vaccine were fully protected from lung infection after challenge with the influenza H1N1 wild-type strain, while the neuraminidase virus MVA-N1-Ca induced only partial protection. The live vaccines were already protective after a single dose and induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies and of interferon-γ-secreting (IFN-γ) CD4- and CD8 T-cells in lungs and spleens. In the lungs, a rapid increase of HA-specific CD4- and CD8 T cells was observed in vaccinated mice shortly after challenge with influenza swine flu virus, which probably contributes to the strong inhibition of pulmonary viral replication observed. In addition, passive transfer of antisera raised in MVA-H1-Ca vaccinated immune-competent mice protected SCID mice from lethal challenge with the CA/ 07 wild-type virus. Conclusions/Significance: The non-replicating MVA-based H1N1 live vaccines induce a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for pandemic influenza. © 2010 Hessel et al.


Bioscience Vaccines | Date: 2011-10-28

adjuvants for medical purposes; adjuvants for use with vaccines.

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