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North Browning, MT, United States

Paulson D.S.,BioScience Laboratories Inc.
Clinical laboratory science : journal of the American Society for Medical Technology | Year: 2013

Multiple studies have been performed on a variety of substances, often producing contradictory results. Meta-analysis has provided a means of evaluating these disparate results, combining them into a summary statistic. Using continuous data for baseline and one sample point, several studies were evaluated to achieve a single result, demonstrating the meta-analysis evaluation process.

Vargas-Inchaustegui D.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Xiao P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Xiao P.,Emory Vaccine Center at Yerkes National Primate Research Center | Demberg T.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 2 more authors.
Immunology | Year: 2015

Natural killer (NK) cells are essential components of the immune system, and due to their rapid response potential, can have a great impact during early anti-viral immune responses. We have previously shown that interleukin-2-dependent NK and CD4+ T-cell co-operative immune responses exist in long-term simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) -infected controlling macaques and can be rescued in SIV-infected non-controlling macaques by a short course of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Given that co-operative responses may play an important role in disease prevention and therapeutic treatment, in the present study we sought to determine if these responses can be enhanced in chronically SIV-infected macaques by vaccination with a single-dose of envelope protein given during ART. To this end, we treated 14 chronically SIV-infected macaques with ART for 11 weeks and gave 10 of these macaques a single intramuscular dose of SIV gp120 at week 9 of treatment. ART significantly decreased plasma and mucosal viral loads, increased the numbers of circulating CD4+ T cells in all macaques, and increased T-cell-dependent envelope- and gag-specific interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α production by circulatory CD56+ NK cells. The therapeutic envelope immunization resulted in higher envelope-specific responses compared with those in macaques that received ART only. Functional T-cell responses restored by ART and therapeutic Env immunization were correlated with transiently reduced plasma viraemia levels following ART release. Collectively our results indicate that SIV-specific T-cell-dependent NK cell responses can be efficiently rescued by ART in chronically SIV-infected macaques and that therapeutic immunization may be beneficial in previously vaccinated individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Carty N.,Vancive Medical Technologies | Wibaux A.,Vancive Medical Technologies | Ward C.,Vancive Medical Technologies | Paulson D.S.,BioScience Laboratories Inc. | Johnson P.,Vancive Medical Technologies
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a new, transparent composite film dressing, whose adhesive contains chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), against the native microflora present on human skin. Methods: CHG-containing adhesive film dressings and non-antimicrobial control film dressings were applied to the skin on the backs of healthy human volunteers without antiseptic preparation. Dressingswere removed 1, 4 or 7 days after application. The bacterial populations underneath were measured by quantitative cultures (cylinderscrub technique) and compared with one another as a function of time. Results: The mean baseline microflora recovery was 3.24 log10 cfu/cm2. The mean log reductions from baseline measured from underneath the CHG-containing dressings were 0.87, 0.78 and 1.30 log10 cfu/cm2 on days 1, 4 and 7, respectively, compared with log reductions of 0.67, 20.87 and 21.29 log10 cfu/cm2 from underneath the control film dressings. There was no significant difference between the log reductions of the two treatments on day 1, but on days 4 and 7 the log reduction associated with the CHG adhesive was significantly higher than that associated with the control adhesive. Conclusions: The adhesive containing CHG was associated with a sustained antimicrobial effect that was not present in the control. Incorporating the antimicrobial into the adhesive layer confers upon it bactericidal properties in marked contrast to the non-antimicrobial adhesive, which contributed to bacterial proliferation when the wear time was ≥4 days. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

Edmonds S.L.,GOJO Industries Inc. | Zapka C.,GOJO Industries Inc. | Kasper D.,Loyola University Chicago | Gerber R.,Loyola University Chicago | And 7 more authors.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2013

This study determined whether surrogate organisms can predict activity against Clostridium difficile spores and compared the efficacy of hand hygiene preparations against C. difficile. Our data suggest that surrogate organisms were not predictive of C. difficile spore removal. Four preparations were significantly more effective than tap water at removing C. difficile. © 2013 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.

BioScience Laboratories Inc. | Date: 2011-03-14

The brushhead is used in a power skin brush appliance which includes a drive system having a single drive member. The brushhead includes a base assembly mountable to the drive system with an optional outer annular fixed portion and an inner portion which in operation oscillates back and forth at a selected sonic frequency through a selected angle in response to action of the drive system. Mounted on the outer portion is a first group of filament tufts. Mounted on the oscillating portion are three concentric groups of filament tufts. Each oscillating group of filament tufts includes two annular rings of filament tufts. The filament tufts in the oscillating filament tuft groups have a selected physical characteristic which in one embodiment is diameter, which differs between the respective oscillating filament tuft groups sufficiently to produce a differential stiffness between the filaments thereof to in turn produce an out of phase motion of the tips of the filaments between the three oscillating filament tuft groups.

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