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Bonfa M.R.L.,University of Campinas | Grossman M.J.,BioSage | Mellado E.,University of Seville | Durrant L.R.,University of Campinas
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Ten halophilic Archaea (Haloarchaea) strains able to degrade aromatic compounds were isolated from five hypersaline locations; salt marshes in the Uyuni salt flats in Bolivia, crystallizer ponds in Chile and Cabo Rojo (Puerto Rico), and sabkhas (salt flats) in the Persian Gulf (Saudi Arabia) and the Dead Sea (Israel and Jordan). Phylogenetic identification of the isolates was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolated Haloarchaea strains were able to grow on a mixture of benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and salicylic acid (1.5. mM each) and a mixture of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]anthracene (0.3. mM each). Evaluation of the extent of degradation of the mixed aromatic hydrocarbons demonstrated that the isolates could degrade these compounds in hypersaline media containing 20% NaCl. The strains were shown to reduce the COD of hypersaline crude oil reservoir produced waters significantly beyond that achieved using standard hydrogen peroxide treatment alone. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

De Faria A.F.,University of Campinas | Teodoro-Martinez D.S.,University of Campinas | De Oliveira Barbosa G.N.,University of Campinas | Gontijo Vaz B.,University of Campinas | And 7 more authors.
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2011

The production of biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis LSFM-05 was carried out using raw glycerol, obtained from a vegetable oil biodiesel plant in Brazil, as the sole carbon source. Production of the biosurfactant was carried out in a 15-L bench-top fermentor and the surfactant was obtained from the foam produced. The crude surfactant was purified by silica gel column chromatography with a yield of 230 mg of the purified biosurfactant per liter of foam. TLC, IR spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-FTMS) were used to characterize the purified surfactant. The isolated surfactant was identified as a surfactin lipopeptide. MS/MS data identified the amino acid sequence as GluOMe-Leu-Leu-Asp-Val-Leu-Leu and showed that the fatty acid moiety contained 14 carbons in iso, anteiso or normal configurations. The critical micelle concentration of the C14/Leu7 surfactin was 70 μM, with emulsification efficiency after 24 h (E24) of 67.6% against crude oil. Raw glycerol represents an abundant and renewable carbon source and provides an opportunity for reducing the cost of biosurfactant production and may add value to biodiesel production by creating new commercial applications for this by-product. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Caffaro-Filho R.A.,University of Campinas | Grossman M.J.,BioSage | Durrant L.R.,University of Campinas
Environmental Engineering Science | Year: 2011

Polyester manufacturing wastewater consists of water formed as a coproduct of step-growth polymerization reactions, typically performed between diols and dicarboxylic acids. Due to the solubility of the reactants and byproducts of polymerization, the wastewater is typically heavily contaminated and can possess considerable toxicity that can strongly inhibit biological wastewater treatment processes. However, very little has been published on the treatment of wastewater produced during polyester manufacture. We have demonstrated that the toxicity of the wastewater is largely attributable to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the wastewater revealed highly toxic and mutagenic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein congeners) as major components of the VOCs present. Activated sludge treatment was performed under two aeration regimes, coarse bubble sparging and passive aeration through the surface layer, to access their effect on biodegradation/volatilization. After 24 h of incubation in the presence of 10% polyester plant wastewater, coarse bubble sparging resulted in 88% reduction in chemical oxygen demand compared to 45% with passive aeration, both largely attributable to VOC volatilization. The polyester wastewater demonstrated high toxicity as indicated by a net decline in volatile suspended solids under both culture conditions, consistent with previous toxicity assays. Results indicate that significant VOC volatilization would occur during activated sludge treatment of polyester manufacturing wastewater containing the identified acrolein congeners. To prevent toxic VOCs exposure to plant workers and improve biodegradability, we recommend polyester wastewater containing α,β-unsaturated aldehydes be pretreated by air stripping to remove VOCs and incineration of the stripped VOCs before activated sludge treatment. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Caffaro-Filho R.A.,University of Campinas | Wagner R.,University of Campinas | Umbuzeiro G.A.,University of Campinas | Grossman M.J.,BioSage | Durrant L.R.,University of Campinas
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Wastewater generated in industrial production processes are often contaminated by hazardous chemicals. Characterization by means of toxicity-directed analysis is useful for identifying which fractions of a waste stream possess the most toxicity. We applied this approach to evaluate toxic components of a polyester manufacturing wastewater. Using the reduction in oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge as an indicator of toxicity, it was determined that increasing the pH from 3 to 11 followed by air stripping significantly reduced the toxicity of the wastewater. Comparative headspace GC/MS analysis of wastewater at different pHs selected a group of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) associated with the observed effect of air stripping at pH 11. Ten of these compounds were identified as a,b unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein (2-propenal) congeners); these compounds are known to be toxic as well as mutagenic. Confirmation that these compounds were a cause of toxicity was achieved by demonstrating that removal of these compounds by air stripping significantly reduced the wastewater mutagenic potency in a Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Formation of these volatile compounds by base catalyzed aldol condensation at pH 11 may account for the effectiveness of air stripping in reducing toxicity. To date there is no record in the literature about the toxicity and presence of acrolein congeners in polyester manufacturing wastewater. © IWA Publishing 2010.

De Faria A.F.,University of Campinas | Stefani D.,University of Campinas | Vaz B.G.,University of Campinas | Silva I.S.,University of Campinas | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Raw glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production that currently has low to negative value for biodiesel producers. One option for increasing the value of raw glycerol is to use it as a feedstock for microbial production. Bacillus subtilis LSFM 05 was used for the production of fengycin in a mineral medium containing raw glycerol as the sole carbon source. Fengycin was isolated by acid precipitation at pH 2 and purified by silica gel column chromatography and characterized using electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) with collision-induced dissociation (CID). The mass spectrum revealed the presence of the ions of m/z 1,435.7, 1,449.9, 1,463.8, 1,477.8, 1,491.8 and 1,505.8, which were further fragmented by ESI-MS/MS. The CID profile showed the presence of a series of ions (m/z 1,080 and 966) and (m/z 1,108 and 994) that represented the different fengycin homologues A and B, respectively. Fengycin homologues A and B are variants that differ at position 6 of the peptide moiety, having either Ala or Val residues, respectively. Mass spectrometry analyses identified four fengycin A and three fengycin B variants with fatty acid components containing 14-17 carbons. These results demonstrate that raw glycerol can be used as feedstock to produce fengycin, and additional work should focus on the optimization of process conditions to increase productivity. © 2011 Society for Industrial Microbiology.

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