Roh Y.S.,Chonbuk National University |
Roh Y.S.,University of California at San Diego |
Roh Y.S.,Biosafety Research Institute |
Park S.,Chonbuk National University |
And 5 more authors.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2015
Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells act as inhibitory mediators of inflammation; however, the in vivo mechanism underlying this protection remains elusive in liver diseases. Aims: To clarify the in vivo role of Foxp3+ Treg cells in liver fibrosis, we used the DEREG mouse, which expresses the diphtheria toxin receptor under control of the Foxp3 promoter, allowing for specific deletion of Foxp3+ Treg cells. Methods: Bile duct ligation-induced liver injury and fibrosis were assessed by histopathology, fibrogenic gene expression, and measurement of cytokine and chemokine levels. Results: Depletion of Foxp3+ Treg cells enhanced Th17 cell response as demonstrated by the increase of IL-17+ cells and related gene expressions including Il17f, Il17ra, and Rorgt in the fibrotic livers of DEREG mice. Of note, infiltration of CD8+ T cells and Cd8 gene expression was significantly increased in the livers of DEREG mice. Consistent with increased IL-17+ and CD8+ T cell responses, DEREG mice generated higher levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p70) and chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1α, and RANTES). These results were concordant with severity of liver fibrosis and hepatic enzyme levels (ALT and ALP). Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that Foxp3+ Treg cells inhibit the profibrogenic inflammatory milieu through suppression of pro-fibrogenic CD8+ and IL-17+ T cells. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Kim J.-H.,Biosafety Research Institute
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2012
Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginseng may also be potentially valuable in treating cardiovascular diseases. Research concerning cardiovascular disease is focusing on purified individual ginsenoside constituents of ginseng to reveal specific mechanisms instead of using whole ginseng extracts. The most commonly studied ginsenosides are Rb 1, Rg 2, Rg 3, Rh 1, Re, and Rd. The molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides in the treatment of cardiovascular disease have attracted much attention and been the subject of numerous publications. Here, we review the current literature on the myriad pharmacological functions and the potential benefits of ginseng in this area. In vitro investigations using cell cultures and in vivo animal models have indicated ginseng's potential cardiovascular benefits through diverse mechanisms that include antioxidation, modifying vasomotor function, reducing platelet adhesion, influencing ion channels, altering autonomic neurotransmitters release, and improving lipid profiles. Some 40 ginsenosides have been identified. Each may have different effects in pharmacology and mechanisms due to their different chemical structures. This review also summarizes results of relevant clinical trials regarding the cardiovascular effects of ginseng, particularly in the management of hypertension and improving cardiovascular function. © The Korean Society of Ginseng.