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van Acker F.,TNO | Messinger H.,Bioresco Ltd. | Bar A.,Bioresco Ltd.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Vinyl laurate is a potential residual monomer in chewing gum base formulated with polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer (PVAcVL). The genotoxic potential of vinyl laurate was examined in a battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests. Vinyl laurate was not mutagenic in Ames tests. In addition, it was not mutagenic in the HPRT mutation assay in L5178Y cells. An in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay performed in CHO cells was equivocal. Vinyl laurate and/or its metabolites were not clastogenic in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Kinetic data indicate that VL is metabolised to acetaldehyde and lauric acid. Both metabolites are well known and have been studied previously. Model calculations show, that any exposure to acetaldehyde from the consumption of PVAcVL containing chewing gum will remain far below levels of acetaldehyde exposure from food in which acetaldehyde occurs naturally. Direct exposure to VL will primarily be at the site of entry. The lack of toxicity in a 90-day repeated dose toxicity test, performed with VL doses up to approximately 3000 times higher than the maximal VL intake from the consumption of a typical piece of chewing gum, demonstrates a high safety margin. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.


Lina B.A.R.,TNO | Messinger H.,Bioresco Ltd. | Bar A.,Bioresco Ltd.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Vinyl laurate (VL) is used as a monomer in the production of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer, a component of chewing gum base. The safety of VL was examined in a 13-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats. VL was administered in corn coil by daily gavage (5 ml/kg bw/d) to four main groups (10 rats/sex) at doses of 0 (vehicle only), 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. The control and high-dose group comprised an additional 5 rats/sex which were kept untreated for a further 4. weeks until sacrifice (recovery groups). In addition to standard parameters, male and female fertility parameters were determined as well. There were no mortalities and treatment-related clinical signs. Neurobehavioral observations and motor activity assessment, ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weights, feed and water intakes, blood cell counts, coagulation time, standard clinical chemical parameters and urinalyses, absolute and relative organ weights at the end of the treatment as well as macroscopic examination at necropsy and microscopic examination of standard organs and tissues did not show any treatment-related changes. Female and male fertility parameters (estrus cyclicity, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, sperm motility and morphology) were not affected by the treatment. Accordingly, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for VL was determined to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d, i.e. the highest dose level tested. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Messinger H.,Bioresco Ltd. | Bar A.,Bioresco Ltd.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer (PVAcVL) is a useful component of gum base for chewing gum production. The safety of PVAcVL was examined in a 4-week and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. Finely powdered PVAcVL was administered with the diet at levels of 1.25%, 2.0% and 5% in the 4-week study and 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% in the 13-week study. There were no treatment related effects on mortality, bodyweight gains feed efficiency, ophthalmoscopic findings, hematological and clinical chemical parameters, neurobehavioral observations as well as gross and histopathological changes of standard organs and tissues. The highest dose tested in the 13-week study (3783 and 4396. mg/kg. bw/d for males and females, respectively) proved to be a NOAEL. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Messinger H.,Bioresco Ltd. | Bar A.,Bioresco Ltd.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Vinyl laurate (VL), is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer a component of gum base for chewing gum production. The potential toxicity of VL to reproduction was examined in a combined repeated dose and reproduction/developmental toxicity screening study (OECD test guideline 422) and a prenatal developmental toxicity screening study (OECD test guideline 414). VL was administered to Wistar rats by gavage at 0 (controls), 50, 250 and 1000. mg/kg. bw/d. There were no signs of systemic toxicity in the parental animals of either study. Adverse effects on reproductive performance and fetal development that could be attributed to the VL treatment were not observed. Thus, the highest dose level tested was a NOAEL in these two studies. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Bioresco Ltd.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2014

Polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer (PVAcVL) is a useful component of gum base for chewing gum production. The safety of PVAcVL was examined in a 4-week and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. Finely powdered PVAcVL was administered with the diet at levels of 1.25%, 2.0% and 5% in the 4-week study and 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% in the 13-week study. There were no treatment related effects on mortality, bodyweight gains feed efficiency, ophthalmoscopic findings, hematological and clinical chemical parameters, neurobehavioral observations as well as gross and histopathological changes of standard organs and tissues. The highest dose tested in the 13-week study (3783 and 4396mg/kgbw/d for males and females, respectively) proved to be a NOAEL.


PubMed | Bioresco Ltd.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2014

Vinyl laurate (VL), is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer a component of gum base for chewing gum production. The potential toxicity of VL to reproduction was examined in a combined repeated dose and reproduction/developmental toxicity screening study (OECD test guideline 422) and a prenatal developmental toxicity screening study (OECD test guideline 414). VL was administered to Wistar rats by gavage at 0 (controls), 50, 250 and 1000mg/kgbw/d. There were no signs of systemic toxicity in the parental animals of either study. Adverse effects on reproductive performance and fetal development that could be attributed to the VL treatment were not observed. Thus, the highest dose level tested was a NOAEL in these two studies.

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