Sahu S.C.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration |
Roy S.,Bioreliance Corporation |
Zheng J.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration |
Yourick J.J.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration |
Sprando R.L.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2014
As a consequence of the increased use of silver nanoparticles in food, food contact materials, dietary supplements and cosmetics to prevent fungal and bacterial growth, there is a need for validated rapid screening methods to assess the safety of nanoparticle exposure. This study evaluated two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, as tools for assessing the potential genotoxicity of 20-nm nanosilver. The average silver nanoparticle size as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was 20.4 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed no large agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The silver concentration in a 20-nm nanosilver solution determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was 0.962 mg ml-1. Analysis by ICP-MS and TEM demonstrated the uptake of 20-nm silver by both HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Genotoxicity was determined by the cytochalasin B-blocked micronucleus assay with acridine orange staining and fluorescence microscopy. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in the frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei induced by the nanosilver was observed in the concentration range of 0.5 to 15 μg ml-1 in both HepG2 and Caco2 cells compared with the control. Our results indicated that HepG2 cells were more sensitive than Caco2 cells in terms of micronuclei formation induced by nanosilver exposure. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the widely used in vitro models, HepG2 and Caco2 cells in culture, represent potential screening models for prediction of genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles by in vitro micronucleus assay. © 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Onions D.,BioReliance Corporation |
Egan W.,PharmaNet Consulting |
Jarrett R.,University of Glasgow |
Novicki D.,Novartis |
Biologicals | Year: 2010
Cell culture-based production methods may assist in meeting increasing demand for seasonal influenza vaccines and developing production flexibility required for addressing influenza pandemics. MDCK-33016PF cells are used in propagation of a cell-based seasonal influenza vaccine (Optaflu®); but, like most continuous cell lines, can grow in immunocompromised mice to produce tumors. It is, therefore, essential that no residual cells remain within the vaccine, that cell lysates or DNA are not oncogenic, and that the cell substrate does not contain oncogenic viruses or oncogenic DNA. Multiple, redundant processes ensure the safety of influenza vaccines produced in MDCK-33016PF cells. The probability of a residual cell being present in a dose of vaccine is approximately 1 in 1034. Residual MDCK-DNA is ≤10ng per dose and the ß-propiolactone used to inactivate influenza virus results in reduction of detectable DNA to less than 200base pairs (bp). Degenerate PCR and specific PCR confirm exclusion of oncogenic viruses. The manufacturing process has been validated for its capacity to remove and inactivate viruses. We conclude that the theoretical risks arising from manufacturing seasonal influenza vaccine using MDCK-33016PF cells are reduced to levels that are effectively zero by the multiple, orthogonal processes used during production. © 2010 The International Association for Biologicals.
Daum L.T.,Longhorn Vaccines and Diagnostics |
Worthy S.A.,Longhorn Vaccines and Diagnostics |
Yim K.C.,Virion Systems, Inc. |
Nogueras M.,BioReliance Corporation |
And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011
Pathogen detection and genetic characterization has dramatically changed in recent years. Clinical laboratories are transitioning from traditional culture and primer-specific sequencing to more robust and rapid nucleic acid testing such as real-time PCR and meta-genomic characterization, respectively. Specimen collection is the first step in any downstream molecular diagnostic procedure. PrimeStore Molecular Transport Medium (MTM) is an optimized blend of nucleic acid stabilizing reagents that includes a non-specific internal positive control that can be amplified using real-time RT - PCR for tracking the integrity of a specimen from the point of collection to detection. PrimeStore MTM is shown here to effectively kill pathogens, including highly pathogenic H5 influenza virus, inactivate nucleases and to protect and preserve released RNA at ambient temperature for up to 30 days for downstream real-time and traditional RT - PCR detection and genetic characterization. PrimeStore MTM is also compatible with a variety of commercial extraction kits. PrimeStore is suited for routine clinical specimens and has added utility for field collection in remote areas, triage centres, border crossings and during pandemics where cold-chain, transport, and dissemination of potentially infectious pathogens are a concern. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2010.
Wang S.,J. Craig Venter Institute |
Sundaram J.P.,BioReliance Corporation |
Stockwell T.B.,J. Craig Venter Institute
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012
A gene prediction program, VIGOR (Viral Genome ORF Reader), was developed at J. Craig Venter Institute in 2010 and has been successfully performing gene calling in coronavirus, influenza, rhinovirus and rotavirus for projects at the Genome Sequencing Center for Infectious Diseases. VIGOR uses sequence similarity search against custom protein databases to identify protein coding regions, start and stop codons and other gene features. Ribonucleicacid editing and other features are accurately identified based on sequence similarity and signature residues. VIGOR produces four output files: a gene prediction file, a complementary DNA file, an alignment file, and a gene feature table file. The gene feature table can be used to create GenBank submission. VIGOR takes a single input: viral genomic sequences in FASTA format. VIGOR has been extended to predict genes for 12 viruses: measles virus, mumps virus, rubella virus, respiratory syncytial virus, alphavirus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, norovirus, metapneumovirus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, parainfluenza virus and Sendai virus. VIGOR accurately detects the complex gene features like ribonucleicacid editing, stop codon leakage and ribosomal shunting. Precisely identifying the mat-peptide cleavage for some viruses is a built-in feature of VIGOR. The gene predictions for these viruses have been evaluated by testing from 27 to 240 genomes from GenBank. © 2012 The Author(s).
Pant K.,BioReliance Corporation |
Springer S.,BioReliance Corporation |
Bruce S.,BioReliance Corporation |
Lawlor T.,BioReliance Corporation |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2014
There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shi J.,BioReliance Corporation |
Springer S.,BioReliance Corporation |
Escobar P.,BioReliance Corporation
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2010
There is considerable discussion within the scientific community as to the appropriate measures of cytotoxicity to use when deciding on the maximum concentration of a substance to test in vitro for its ability to induce DNA damage using the Comet assay. Conventional cytotoxicity assessment methods, such as trypan blue dye exclusion or relative cell number (cell counts) may not be the most biologically relevant measurement for cytotoxicity in this assay. Thus, we evaluated for decreased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and activation of Caspase-3/7 as well as relative cell number and trypan blue exclusion in order to understand the correlation among test compound concentration, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity outcomes in the Comet assay. We tested two non-genotoxic and non-cytotoxic compounds (d-glucose and ethanol), two non-genotoxic but cytotoxic compounds (2,4-dichlorophenol and tunicamycin) and four genotoxic and cytotoxic compounds (methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, etoposide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide) in TK6 human lymphoblast cells. Our data show that measuring ATP and Caspase-3/7 levels provides more rapid and perhaps more biologically relevant measures of cytotoxicity compared with trypan blue dye exclusion and relative cell number. Furthermore, incorporating these two assays into the Comet assay also provided insight on the cytotoxic mode of action of the chemicals tested. By extrapolation, such assays may also be useful in other in vitro genotoxicity assays. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Onions D.,BioReliance Corporation |
Cote C.,BioReliance Corporation |
Love B.,BioReliance Corporation |
Toms B.,BioReliance Corporation |
And 4 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011
Massively parallel, deep, sequencing of the transcriptome coupled with algorithmic analysis to identify adventitious agents (MP-Seq™) is an important adjunct in ensuring the safety of cells used in vaccine production. Such cells may harbour novel viruses whose sequences are unknown or latent viruses that are only expressed following stress to the cells. MP-Seq is an unbiased and comprehensive method to identify such viruses and other adventitious agents without prior knowledge of the nature of those agents. Here we demonstrate its utility as part of an integrated approach to identify and characterise potential contaminants within commonly used virus and vaccine production cell lines. Through this analysis, in combination with more traditional approaches, we have excluded the presence of porcine circoviruses in the ATCC Vero cell bank (CCL-81), however, we found that a full length betaretrovirus related to SRV can be expressed in these cells, a factor that may be of importance in the production of certain vaccines. Similarly, insect cells are proving to be valuable for the production of virus like particles and sub-unit vaccines, but they can harbour a range of latent viruses. We show that following MP-Seq of the Trichoplusia ni (High Five cell line) transcriptome we were able to detect a contaminating, latent nodavirus and identify an expressed errantivirus genome. Collectively, these studies have reinforced the role of MP-Seq as an integral tool for the identification of contaminating agents in vaccine cell substrates. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Shah S.A.,BioReliance Corporation |
Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance Corporation |
Atkins P.I.,BioReliance Corporation |
Zahalka E.A.,BioReliance Corporation
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2012
The lack of a clear guidance on the adequate number of animals used for positive controls in the short-term (26-weeks) transgenic mouse carcinogenicity studies has resulted in the use of high number of animals. In our earlier Tg.rasH2 studies, 25 mice/sex were used in the urethane-positive control dose groups that were sacrificed by 18 weeks. Based on a robust response, several of our protocols for Tg.rasH2 studies with 15 mice/sex and terminal sacrifice at 17 ± 1 weeks were submitted and accepted by the Carcinogenicity Assessment Committee of the US Food and Drug Administration since we demonstrated close to 100% response for the development of lung and splenic tumors (target organs) in 500 mice/sex. These 500 mice/sex included 17 groups of 25 mice/sex and 5 groups of 15 mice/sex. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether the number of animals can be further reduced along with the shortened duration of exposure to urethane. Accordingly, 10 Tg.rasH2 mice/sex/group were administered a total of 3 intraperitoneal (IP) injections of urethane (1000 mg/kg per day) on study days 1, 3, and 5, and the presence of tumors in the lungs and spleen was evaluated after 8, 10, 12, 14, or 16 weeks. Our results demonstrate that 100% of the mice at 8 weeks had developed lung tumors, whereas close to 100% of the mice at 14 weeks had developed splenic tumors. Based on the development of lung tumors alone in 100% of the mice, we recommend that 10 mice/sex are sufficient and that these mice can also be sacrificed as early as 10 ± 1 weeks following the administration of urethane. © The Author(s) 2012.
Shi J.,BioReliance Corporation |
Bezabhie R.,BioReliance Corporation |
Szkudlinska A.,BioReliance Corporation
Mutagenesis | Year: 2010
The in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay is widely used to assess genotoxic potential of the test substances by measuring frequency of MN in cultured mammalian cells. Traditionally, MN frequency has been determined by microscopy. In recent years, a flow cytometric method for enumeration of MN has been developed, which significantly shortens analysis time and enhances assay throughput. However, a major concern has been raised that the MN results obtained from flow cytometry can be impacted by chromatin bodies produced during apoptosis or necrosis. In this work, we further evaluated this flow cytometry-based in vitro MN assay with CHO-K1 cells in a 24-well platform. Our results showed that the MN frequency determined using the flow cytometric method was highly correlated with the microscopy results. Importantly, several non-genotoxic apoptosis inducers or cytotoxins that have been previously reported to produce 'artificial positives' in various in vitro genotoxicity tests were evaluated in this system. As a result, these non-genotoxic cytotoxins did not produce false-positive MN response in the flow cytometric system in CHO-K1 cells when cytotoxicity was <50±10%. Moreover, a total of 21 compounds were evaluated in this work, including direct or indirect clastogens, aneugens and non-genotoxic chemicals. A sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 100% were obtained from the compounds we tested. Finally, significant increase of incidents in the hypodiploid region, an aneugenic signature, was confirmed in our evaluation. In conclusion, the flow cytometric in vitro MN assay is a reliable method that can be used to detect clastogenic or aneugenic potential of the test substances in CHO-K1 cells.
Pant K.,BioReliance Corporation
Mutation research | Year: 2010
The SHE cell transformation assay has traditionally been conducted with a feeder layer of X-ray irradiated cells to provide growth support to the target cells seeded in low numbers. The need for an X-ray irradiated feeder cell layer necessitates the maintenance of an X-ray machine and the additional step to seed feeder cells prior to plating target cells. This laboratory has previously reported a method allowing target cells to be seeded in conditioned media prepared from the stock culture flasks in lieu of plating them on a feeder layer (Pant et al. [1,2,4]). In order to expand the data base for chemicals tested using this method, we describe in this paper the results obtained testing Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and N-nitroso-N-methylnitroguanidine (MNNG) which are known to give positive responses in the standard SHE cell transformation assay. With freshly prepared conditioned medium (used within 2 weeks of preparation), there was essentially no difference in the number of target cell colonies in the conditioned medium and in the plates with the X-ray irradiated feeder cell layer. The plating efficiencies of the vehicle controls were within the historical range for the standard SHE cell transformation assay. In more than ten experiments the positive control benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] elicited a significant increase in morphological transformation frequency (MTF), with or without X-ray irradiated feeder cells. Compounds, DEHP and MNNG, were tested in the SHE cell transformation assay with and without an X-ray irradiated feeder layer and using a 7-day exposure regimen. The results were comparable between experiments performed using either method. These results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting the SHE cell transformation assay without the use of an X-ray irradiated feeder layer, thereby simplifying the test procedure and assisting the scoring of morphologically transformed colonies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.