Rockville, MD, United States
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PubMed | EPL NorthWest, PAREXEL, Private Consultant, BioReliance by SAFC and EPL North Carolina
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2016

We report renal tubular adenomas and a carcinoma in 26-week Tg.rasH2 mouse carcinogenicity studies, which have not been reported to date either at our facility or in other published data. However, during the year 2014, renal tubular tumors were present in 4 studies conducted at our facility. Because of their morphological similarity to the amphophilic-vacuolar (AV) phenotypic variant of renal tubule tumors noted in Sprague-Dawley and Fischer 344 rats, which are thought to be familial, as well as the genetic homogeneity of Tg.rasH2 mice, we tracked the parents of these mice with tumors in each study. The origin of these tumors could not be traced back to any of the parents or even an animal barrier, and these tumors were not attributed to the vehicle or test article. Although the exact mechanism of tumorigenesis was not known, based on the available information, the development of renal tumors in these mice was considered random and spontaneous.

Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance by SAFC | Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance by SAFC | Contreras P.C.,Conatus Pharmaceuticals | Spada A.,Conatus Pharmaceuticals
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Emricasan, formerly IDN-6556, is a small molecule currently being evaluated in clinical trials to reduce hepatic injury and liver fibrosis. Since emricasan is an irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor that potently inhibits caspase-mediated apoptosis and inflammation, its carcinogenic potential was evaluated in a humanized mouse model. Tg.rasH2 mice received LabDiet formulated with 0, 10, 25, and 75. mg/kg/day of emricasan, for 26. weeks. At terminal sacrifice, blood was collected for clinical pathology analysis and tissues were collected, processed, and evaluated microscopically. There were no treatment related deaths or overt signs of toxicity for the duration of the study. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect in the peripheral blood leukocyte counts. Liver microgranulomas, which are background lesions, were slightly increased, especially in males. Increases in the incidence of the activated germinal centers were seen in the spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes of males and females, and in the mandibular lymph nodes of male mice. Atrophy of ovaries and testicular degeneration were also seen in emricasan treated animals. Although several non-neoplastic lesions were observed, there was no evidence of emricasan-related tumor formation in any tissue. In addition, the non-neoplastic lesions were not considered pre-neoplastic. Thus, emricasan is not considered carcinogenic. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Momot D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Zheng C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Yin H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance by SAFC | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

In preparation for testing the safety of using serotype 2 recombinant adeno-associated vector, encoding Aquaporin-1 to treat radiation-induced salivary gland damage in a phase 1 clinical trial, we conducted a 13 week GLP biodistribution and toxicology study using Balb/c mice. To best assess the safety of rAAV2hAQP1 as well as resemble clinical delivery, vector (10 8, 109, 1010, or 4.4×1010 vector particles/gland) or saline was delivered to the right parotid gland of mice via retroductal cannulation. Very mild surgically induced inflammation was caused by this procedure, seen in 3.6% of animals for the right parotid gland, and 5.3% for the left parotid gland. Long term distribution of vector appeared to be localized to the site of cannulation as well as the right and left draining submandibular lymph nodes at levels >50 copies/μg in some animals. As expected, there was a dose-related increase in neutralizing antibodies produced by day 29. Overall, animals appeared to thrive, with no differences in mean body weight, food or water consumption between groups. There were no significant adverse effects due to treatment noted by clinical chemistry and pathology evaluations. Hematology assessment of serum demonstrated very limited changes to the white blood cell, segmented neutrophils, and hematocrit levels and were concluded to not be vector-associated. Indicators for liver, kidney, cardiac functions and general tissue damage showed no changes due to treatment. All of these indicators suggest the treatment is clinically safe.

PubMed | BioSTAT Consultants Inc., Virginia Commonwealth University, Parexel International and BioReliance By SAFC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2016

We recently conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 29 Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies conducted at our facility to determine how successful was the strategy of choosing the high dose of the 26-week studies based on an estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD). As a result of our publication, 2 counterviews were expressed. Both counterviews illustrate very valid points in their interpretation of our data. In this article, we would like to highlight clarifications based on several points and issues they have raised in their papers, namely, the dose-level selection, determining if MTD was exceeded in 26-week studies, and a discussion on the number of dose groups to be used in the studies.

Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance By SAFC | Denton M.D.,BioReliance By SAFC | Vidmar T.,BioSTAT Consultants Inc | Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance By SAFC
International journal of toxicology | Year: 2014

Carcinogenicity studies have been performed in conventional 2-year rodent studies for at least 3 decades, whereas the short-term carcinogenicity studies in transgenic mice, such as Tg.rasH2, have only been performed over the last decade. In the 2-year conventional rodent studies, interlinked problems, such as increasing trends in the initial body weights, increased body weight gains, high incidence of spontaneous tumors, and low survival, that complicate the interpretation of findings have been well established. However, these end points have not been evaluated in the short-term carcinogenicity studies involving the Tg.rasH2 mice. In this article, we present retrospective analysis of data obtained from control groups in 26-week carcinogenicity studies conducted in Tg.rasH2 mice since 2004. Our analysis showed statistically significant decreasing trends in initial body weights of both sexes. Although the terminal body weights did not show any significant trends, there was a statistically significant increasing trend toward body weight gains, more so in males than in females, which correlated with increasing trends in the food consumption. There were no statistically significant alterations in mortality trends. In addition, the incidence of all common spontaneous tumors remained fairly constant with no statistically significant differences in trends. © The Author(s) 2014.

Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance by SAFC | Denton M.D.,BioReliance by SAFC | Vidmar T.J.,BioSTAT Consultants Inc. | Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance by SAFC
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2015

High doses in Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies are usually set at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), although this dose selection strategy has not been critically evaluated. We analyzed the body weight gains (BWGs), mortality, and tumor response in control and treated groups of 29 Tg.rasH2 studies conducted at BioReliance. Based on our analysis, it is evident that the MTD was exceeded at the high and/or mid-doses in several studies. The incidence of tumors in high doses was lower when compared to the low and mid-doses of both sexes. Thus, we recommend that the high dose in male mice should not exceed one-half of the estimated MTD (EMTD), as it is currently chosen, and the next dose should be one-fourth of the EMTD. Because females were less sensitive to decrements in BWG, the high dose in female mice should not exceed two-third of EMTD and the next dose group should be one-third of EMTD. If needed, a third dose group should be set at one-eighth EMTD in males and one-sixth EMTD in females. In addition, for compounds that do not show toxicity in the range finding studies, a limit dose should be applied for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance by SAFC | Denton M.D.,BioReliance by SAFC | Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance by SAFC
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

A typical 26-week Tg.Rash2mouse carcinogenicity study usually has 4 dose groups, composed of 25 mice/sex, which include 1 control and 3 test article-treated groups. In every study, there is a protocol required full tissue list of 49 tissues which is examined microscopically in all animals of these 4 dose groups. Based on retrospective analysis of the historical control data collected from studies conducted in Tg.Rash2mice from 2004 to 2012, we propose that a full tissue list be examined as usual in the control and high-dose groups; however, in the low- and mid-dose groups, only select tissues should be examined. The select tissue list is generated after analyzing common tumors, uncommon tumors seen grossly, uncommon tumors not seen grossly, organ weight variations with accountable microscopic lesions, and target organs identified in the high-dose groups. The proposed changes to the International Conference on Harmonization S1 guidance may lead to an increased need for 26-week Tg.Rash2mice studies. The time savings resulting from processing and evaluating a select tissue list rather than a full tissue list from low- and mid-dose groups of Tg.Rash2mouse studies will further accelerate early completion of these studies without compromising the quality and integrity. © 2014 by The Author(s).

Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance by SAFC | Shah S.A.,BioReliance by SAFC | Denton M.D.,BioReliance by SAFC | Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance by SAFC
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2013

Since 2003, the Tg.rasH2 model has been accepted by regulatory agencies worldwide for 26-week short-term carcinogenicity assays as an alternative to the standard 2-year assays in conventional mice. However, over the decade, the number of actual studies conducted with alternative mouse models has remained low. The primary cause for low acceptance of this model has been lack of a historical database for the incidence of spontaneous lesions. Recently, we published the historical control database on spontaneous tumors in the Tg.rasH2 mice. The purpose of this publication is to present a large database pertaining to the non-neoplastic spontaneous lesions noted in Tg.rasH2 mice from studies conducted at our facility. Lesions that are considered unique in Tg.rasH2 mice are skeletal muscle myopathy, vascular anomalies involving various organs, and mesenteric arterial thrombosis. Other notable lesions are extramedullary hematopoiesis of spleen, subacute inflammatory foci in the liver, and infiltration of histiocytes in the lungs. © 2013 by The Author(s).

Paranjpe M.G.,BioReliance by SAFC | Denton M.D.,BioReliance by SAFC | Vidmar T.J.,BioSTAT Consultants Inc. | Elbekai R.H.,BioReliance by SAFC
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

The mechanistic relationship between increased food consumption, increased body weights, and increased incidence of tumors has been well established in 2-year rodent models. Body weight parameters such as initial body weights, terminal body weights, food consumption, and the body weight gains in grams and percentages were analyzed to determine whether such relationship exists between these parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.Rash2mice. None of these body weight parameters had any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.Rash2males, namely lung tumors, splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas, and Harderian gland tumors. These parameters also did not have any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of lung and Harderian gland tumors in females. However, in females, increased initial body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and increased terminal body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the incidence of splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas. In addition, increased body weight gains in grams and percentages had a statistically significant relationship with the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas in females, but not separately with splenic and nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas. © 2014 by The Author(s).

Clarke J.J.,BioReliance by SAFC | Lawlor T.E.,BioReliance by SAFC | Madraymootoo W.,BioReliance by SAFC | Pant K.,BioReliance by SAFC | And 3 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2012

Key modifications to in vitro genetic toxicology testing have been made in the last 5 years including the use of optimization approaches such as structure-activity relationships and screening assays to identify and eliminate potentially genotoxic chemicals from further consideration, better guidance on cytotoxicity assessment and dose selection, and greater use of p53-competent human cells. To determine the effect of these changes on testing outcomes, the pattern of positive results across assays conducted by BioReliance from 2005 to 2010 was examined. Data were tabulated for good laboratory practice (GLP)-compliant Ames, mouse lymphoma (MLA), chromosome aberration in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) assays along with non-GLP screening Ames assays. A decrease in percentage of positive results in MLA and CHO chromosome aberration assays was observed, whereas the percentage of positive Ames assays remained consistent. This was not unexpected because MLA and CHO cytogenetic assays have undergone the most substantive changes (e.g., the establishment of the Global Evaluation Factor for the MLA and the use of the relative increase in cell counts in CHO chromosome aberration assays). Over the last 5 years, there has been an increase in the percentage of positive results observed in the chromosome aberration assay in HPBL. It is speculated that this may have led to an increase in HPBL-positive results if the chemicals routed to HPBL had previous positive genotoxicity results. Another factor may be the lack of a reliable cytotoxicity measurement in the HPBL assay. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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