Reinach, Switzerland
Reinach, Switzerland

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Couto D.,Norwich Research Park | Niebergall R.,Norwich Research Park | Niebergall R.,University of Munster | Liang X.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | And 17 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2016

Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase PP2C38 as a negative regulator of BIK1 activity and BIK1-mediated immunity. PP2C38 dynamically associates with BIK1, as well as with the PRRs FLS2 and EFR, but not with the co-receptor BAK1. PP2C38 regulates PAMP-induced BIK1 phosphorylation and impairs the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by BIK1, leading to reduced oxidative burst and stomatal immunity. Upon PAMP perception, PP2C38 is phosphorylated on serine 77 and dissociates from the FLS2/EFR-BIK1 complexes, enabling full BIK1 activation. Together with our recent work on the control of BIK1 turnover, this study reveals another important regulatory mechanism of this central immune component. © 2016 Couto et al.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2011-2 | Award Amount: 1.97M | Year: 2012

VERTIGEEN addresses a need identified by olive sector SME-Associations for the rapid and reliable on-site detection and quantification of the Verticillium dahliae fungus in soil and plant samples. The increasing frequency and severity of this pathogen in most EU olive growing areas has made it the most serious problem of commercial olive plantations. For an estimated commercial price of 1,000/device and 10/test, VERTIGEEN will allow olive producers to reduce losses caused by this pathogen by means of precise and efficient field interventions within an Integrated Pest Management Strategy. The system innovatively integrates in a single platform new but successfully demonstrated technologies: the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and the original in-solution-DNA electrochemical detection, overcoming the limitations of the state of the art in terms of heterogeneity, portability, price, ease of use and time-to-result. VERTIGEEN will directly benefit the European olive sector by limiting disease spread and reducing its impact. Crop yield and profitability will increase, while production costs related to the systemic use of pesticides and the production of healthy olive trees will be reduced. Other benefits extend to olive nurseries being able to issue quality certificates of planting material, and for authorities monitoring disease occurrence. The SME-AGs who have a direct role in the production and distribution of olive oil will benefit from direct economic benefits of their IPR ownership, while their associated SMEs will increase their profit margins, preserve employment and maintain a competitive edge in the global market. Industrial SMEs, chosen by SME-AGS to guarantee the best exploitation route to the market, will benefit from an innovative portfolio product to generate new income sources and open new markets in Verticillium control.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 787.50K | Year: 2017

Fruit trees and grapevine are propagated vegetatively and are often grafted. As a result they suffer from a high number of pathogens such as viruses and viroids, a number of which are causing severe yield losses and reduce the productive life of the affected plants. As these pathogens cannot be controlled by the application of chemicals, the most efficient way to combat them is the production and commercialization of high quality pathogen-tested propagative material. Nevertheless, this procedure is not simple and both academia and private sectors are working towards its improvement. In this direction was built the herein interdisciplinary proposal which brings together academia and private companies to collaborate through their expertise on the following objectives: 1) to identify new viral and viroid strains or species affecting fruit trees and grapevine, 2) to optimise existing and develop novel detection methods and 3) to improve propagation and sanitation methods for producing high quality (virus-tested) plant material of fruit trees and grapevine. In this project diagnostic tools that are currently used in certification programs will be combined with cutting edge technologies such as NGS and Nanobodies. The project has eight academic partners within the EU and associated countries, three within Third Countries and five non-academic partners. The knowledge obtained will be shared among the partners of the proposal and further disseminated to academic institutions, nurseries and other private sectors. Most importantly training of a new generation of researchers will be done in close contact to the needs of both industrial and academic sectors. In conclusion, the results of this proposal will enrich the knowledge on viruses/viroids associated with different diseases, improve the sensitivity of their detection methods, lead to new detection products and further contribute to the improvement of the disseminated propagative material of fruit trees and grapevine.


Braun-Kiewnick A.,Swiss National Competence Center for Fire Blight | Altenbach D.,BIOREBA AG | Oberhansli T.,BIOREBA AG | Bitterlin W.,BIOREBA AG | Duffy B.,Swiss National Competence Center for Fire Blight
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2011

Fire blight is an invasive disease caused by Erwinia amylovora that threatens pome fruit production globally. Effective implementation of phytosanitary control measures depends upon rapid, reliable pathogen detection and disease diagnosis. We developed a lateral-flow immunoassay specific for E. amylovora with a detection limit of log 5.7. CFU/ml, typical of pathogen concentrations in symptomatic plant material. The simple assay had comparable sensitivity to standard culture plating, serum agglutination and nested PCR when validated for application in a phytosanitary laboratory as a confirmatory test of cultured isolates and for first-line diagnosis of phytosanitary samples that represent the full range of commercial, ornamental and forestry host species. On-site validation in ring-trials with local plant inspectors demonstrated robust and reliable detection (compared to subsequent plating and PCR analysis). The simplicity, inspector acceptance and facilitation of expedited diagnosis (from 2. days for laboratory submitted samples to 15. min with the immunoassay), offers a valuable tool for improved phytosanitary control of fire blight. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Oberhansli T.,BIOREBA AG | Altenbach D.,BIOREBA AG | Bitterlin W.,BIOREBA AG
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2011

The detection of phytoplasmas in fruit trees and other important crops is demanded from nurseries and certification agencies. We have therefore developed an efficient assay for general detection of phytoplasmas. This duplex assay combines the phytoplasma detection with an internal control, detecting host gene 18S rRNA in the same reaction. The internal control enables the confirmation of an efficient DNA extraction and the recognition of eventual inhibition of the PCR. In contrast to a cytochrome oxidase (COX) assay, which did not work in fruit trees, 18S rRNA host gene detection was shown to be usable in a broader range of plants. The sensitivity and robustness of the duplex qPCR was evaluated with different dilutions of samples and compared with traditional nested PCR. The duplex qPCR was at least as sensitive as nested PCR and less susceptible to inhibition due to impurities in DNA extracts. The method was successfully employed for the screening of phytoplasmas in samples of fruit tree, raspberry, and grapevine. Typically, phytoplasma positive samples were tested with Ct values of 22-30, whereas Ct values for the internal control were in the range of 13-23.

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