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Stephens A.M.,Bioprocessing and Nutrition science | Dean L.L.,North Carolina State University | Davis J.P.,North Carolina State University | Sanders T.H.,North Carolina State University
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) without reducing high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The cardiovascular effects of the nonlipid portion of peanuts has not been evaluated even though that fraction contains arginine, flavonoids, folates, and other compounds that have been linked to cardiovascular health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fat free peanut flour (FFPF), peanuts, and peanut oil on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the development of atherosclerosis in male Syrian golden hamsters. Each experimental diet group was fed a high fat, high cholesterol diet with various peanut components (FFPF, peanut oil, or peanuts) substituted for similar metabolic components in the control diet. Tissues were collected at week 0, 12, 18, and 24. Total plasma cholesterol (TPC), LDL-C, and HDL-C distributions were determined by high-performance gel filtration chromatography, while aortic total cholesterol (TC) and cholesteryl ester (CE) were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Peanuts, peanut oil, and FFPF diet groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower TPC, non-HDL-C than the control group beginning at about 12 wk and continuing through the 24-wk study. HDL-C was not significantly different among the diet groups. Peanut and peanut component diets retarded an increase in TC and CE. Because CE is an indicator of the development of atherosclerosis this study demonstrated that peanuts, peanut oil, and FFPF retarded the development of atherosclerosis in animals consuming an atherosclerosis inducing diet. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Rahimi S.,Tarbiat Modares University | Kathariou S.,Bioprocessing and Nutrition science | Grimes J.L.,North Carolina State University | Siletzky R.M.,Bioprocessing and Nutrition science
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Clostridium perfringens is recognized as an enteric pathogen in humans, domestic animals, and livestock. This organism is associated with necrotic enteritis, gangrenous dermatitis, clostridial dermatitis (turkeys), and gizzard erosions in poultry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a directfed microbial (DFM), Primalac (Star Labs, Clarksdale, MO), in preventing intestinal colonization of turkey poults with C. perfringens. One-day-old turkey poults (n = 128) were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 4 replicates (8 birds/pen). Treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet without DFM (C); 2) basal diet supplemented with Primalac (1.5 kg/ton; PM); 3) basal diet with poults gavaged with C. perfringens (CCP); and 4) basal diet supplemented with Primalac and poults gavaged with C. perfringens (PMCP). Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trials, and birds were inoculated with C. perfringens (10 8cfu/mL) on d 3 and 7. On d 21, 2 birds/pen were killed, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected and weighed, and cecal contents were used for C. perfringens enumeration. Feed consumption, BW, and feed conversion were calculated throughout the trial (weekly and cumulatively). Data were analyzed using GLM of SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC; P < 0.05). Among the inoculated groups, birds fed the DFM-supplemented diet had significantly lower cecal C. perfringens counts than the birds fed the diet without the DFM. The C. perfringens (log10 cfu/g) in ceca were as follows: C, 5.88; CCP, 7.26; PM, 5.35; PMCP, 6.19 ±} 0.36. No differences were observed for BW (814 ±} 11 g), feed conversion (1.33 ±} 0.03), organ weights, or relative organ weights. Further studies are needed to fully ascertain the potential of using DFM to reduce the numbers of C. perfringens in the gastrointestinal tract of turkey poults, c 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Shi X.,Bioprocessing and Nutrition science | Guo R.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | White B.L.,North Carolina State University | Yancey A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 6 more authors.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2013

Background: Peanut flour is a high-protein, low-oil, powdered material prepared from roasted peanut seed. In addition to being a well-established food ingredient, peanut flour is also the active ingredient in peanut oral immunotherapy trials. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated as a processing strategy to generate hydrolysates from peanut flour with reduced allergenicity. Methods: Soluble fractions of 10% (w/v) light roasted peanut flour dispersions were hydrolyzed with the following proteases: Alcalase (pH 8.0, 60°C), pepsin (pH 2.0, 37°C) or Flavourzyme (pH 7.0, 50°C) for 60 min. Western blotting, inhibition ELISA and basophil activation tests were used to examine IgE reactivity. Results: Western blotting experiments revealed the hydrolysates retained IgE binding reactivity and these IgE-reactive peptides were primarily Ara h 2 fragments regardless of the protease tested. Inhibition ELISA assays demonstrated that each of the hydrolysates had decreased capacity to bind peanut-specific IgE compared with nonhydrolyzed controls. Basophil activation tests revealed that all hydrolysates were comparable (p > 0.05) to nonhydrolyzed controls in IgE cross-linking capacity. Conclusions: These results indicate that hydrolysis of peanut flour reduced IgE binding capacity; however, IgE cross-linking capacity during hydrolysis was retained, thus suggesting such hydrolysates are not hypoallergenic. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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